Update year for Norn furnace. Ref 1 Foundries and mines in Bergslagen
Driving with mc to Norn foundry
Text and picture
Björn Bellander. Picture current 2008

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since 060105
© Björn Bellander

Created 140201


Angelsbergs foundry
Ags foundry
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Flatenbergs foundry
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Grangshammars works
Klenshyttan foundry
Korsans works
Mellings ruin
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Norns foundry
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Sura works museum
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Ulfs foundryhyttan
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Akers Styckebruk foundry
Red earth
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Nora veteran railw.
Falu copper mine
Hillanget Ludvika
Tykarps cave
Pers foundry
Riddar foundry copper
Ramnas rolling mill
Kratte furnace
Mojsen Grangesberg
Map overvire. Ref. 1. Översiktskarta. Ref 1
Map overvire. Ref. 1. Översiktskarta. Ref 1 The rust oven part. Ref 1
The rust oven part. Ref 1 Info about how to  make iron. Ref 1
Info about how to make iron. Ref 1 The furnace. Ref 1
The furnace. Ref 1 Electrical power station. Ref 49
Electrical power station. Ref 49 Altar in the local Norn church. Ref 1
Altar in the local Norn church. Ref 1 Clothes for the reverenge. Ref 1
Clothes for the reverenge. Ref 1
Information in the chapel. Ref 1
Information in the chapel. Ref 1
Info about Norns. Ref 1
Info about Norns. Ref 1
Info about Norn. Ref 1
Info about Norn. Ref 1

Norns Works

Society Norn works

Building register

Franche-Comté forge

Tysk forge
Norn foundry. Ref. 1
Norn foundry. Ref. 1
About Norn.

Norn is word where NOR which means PASSAGE between in this case three lakes. This was also the cause. There were Large Strait Lake, Dike Lake and Great Norn. There was also a level difference of 30 m. This was the condition to generate power for iron production. Here the water flows from Great Norn over Dike lake and Great Sundsjön straight east.

From the beginning there were two Finnish immigrants, Lars Larsson and Simon Nilsson, who got permission 1628 from Gustav II Adolf to start a hammer and a foundry near lake Norn. Why they must have permission was that the state must have control how much wood from forest was taken. because there were many foundries around.

The foundry was built just at the south part of Great Norn/Dike Lake in the area of Hult. Sweden had a large immigration from Finnish families during 1600. As many as 14 foundries were started in the community of Söderbärke.

There are just little knowledge about the two men and their work in Norn. Waterpower and forest could they get in sufficient amount.

About blowers and Hans Steffens.

In a furnace a system of pressurized air was pressed into the lower part of the to get a higher temperature. In order to succeed with this blowers were used. Early kind were produced by skin and were very expensive. May be their living time wasn't so long either.

In Falun they had also this problem. The King in Sweden was dependent of copper as money had large experience of this blower problem.

It was yet another immigrate. This time from Germany, Hans Steffens. He was an inventor of the time. The King sent him to Falun to solve this blower problem. He made the blowers of wooden material instead.

The King became so sufficient with the result that he rewarded Steffens with 8 tons of copper. This was a fortune. Using this money Steffens bought Norn 1637 and Thurbo 1639, further up in the water system. He also built a new foundry 1709 between Dike Lake and Great Straight Lake on the place which the Foundry of Norn is situated today. Probably it was a mould timber furnace from the beginning. Compare Ängelsbergs foundry. Norn has since been renovated at least once. Compare also the lower part of Norn furnace.

Between the Finnish immigrants and Steffens, Göran Bagge and Gouvert von Freden, owning hammers in Thurbo, bought Norn 1630.

Now it was running.

Steffens was an active manager and expanded Norn with a bar power system and refining iron to be forgeable in what was called French Forge. 

The King admired him and gave him tax exemption from duty and authorized him as mining manager. Thurbo part was leased out to brother-in-law Anders Angerstein and in Norn Hans Neuman became administrator, Steffens became later Lord Mayor in Hedemora.

Hans Neuman and others.

Hans was also an immigrant and came from Germany. He had started business activities in Stockholm. He was  invited to Norn and when Steffens died he took the opportunity to marry the widow. In this way he became the owner of Norn and Thurbo.

To be sure to get ore Neuman bought a mine in Nisshyttan and now he could start another hammer forge.

Now there were 4 of them between the short distance of Great Strait Lake and Dike Lake. He also wanted that a road had to be built from Hedemora, but this was never realized and yet today there is nothing else than a forest type of way to Norn. The iron could only be transported by boat or wintertime through horse and sledges.

Hans Neuman got a notably life. He was captured prisoner by Dutch pirates 1661, when he was travelling with the Swedish merchant ship Christina. He died in prison arrested on the Gold Coast in Africa.

Now several new owners followed, sons and marriages up to 1702. The last were brothers Abraham and Jacob Momma. They were knighted Renstierna.

Söderhielm time - Tersmeden.

Through marriage with the last owner's widow Cederberg, Lorentz Niclas Söderhielm became the Norn owner. He was educated as military but asked to retire because of injury. After some time he was sole owner.

The son Lorentz Petter married Ulrika Tersmeden who died after 14 years and 11 children 1760. This year Lorentz Petter took over the lead of Norn after his father's dead. He now married Ulrika's cousine Christina Cedercreutz. Now another 8 children were born. The family Tersmeden had a firm lead over Norn.

Petter moved 1772 to Engelsberg iron work. After a while he became the owner. To take care of his large family of children a new part of the manor was built with 17 rooms. The iron work was one of the most modern at this time.

Norn was now under the lead of administrators and an inspectors, but the ownership was still in Söderhielm -  Tersmedens hands up to when it was sold to the new establisment Larsbo-Norns AB 1874.

Talking about Larsbo-Norn AB.

About the family Smede there are papers as far back as 1300 in the area around Rehn and Elbe. Claus tor Smede is the first known named 1490. They worked with business in Stade.

The family moved to Flensburg in the beginning of 1500. Here they started a business house. Flensburg was a part of Denmark but had large independence. Part of the family were then spread in Denmark and one part moved to Sweden.

The business house went bankruptcy 1602 and two sons Herman and Gesche moved to Sweden. Herman tor Smede became soon the head of the family. Gesche's headstone can be seen at the church of Säter.

Herman (1610-1667) got work in the Swedish iron industry and was responsible for several iron units among them Larsbo. 1751 he was knighted Tersmeden and Larsbo was the main manor for this family.

Tersmeden moved from Larsbo 1794 and bought Hinsebeg. Larsbo was left in the family and led by an administrator till 1874. Hinseberg is today owned by the state and is used as a prison for women.

Now 1848 a new law about stock companies was stated. 1872 Larsbo-Norns AB was established. This company included Larsbo, Norn, Vikmanshyttan, Turbo, half part of Ramnäs and Prästhyttan. 

Several reorganizations followed for this company. This ended for several that they were destroyed more or less when production moved between the works. This company was a stock company and opened for purchasing.

1920 was a year of crisis for many of them. At this time it was owned by Scanis-Vabis. This company went bankruptcy and was bought by Barken Timber Saw through Billerud. The reason was that when old iron works no more could generate money it's value was dependent on the forest area they owned.

The end for Norn.

The center of the company Larsbo-Norns was Norn and it's large forest areas. Yet the time up to 1900 gave no profit. All money had to be reinvested. The stock holders didn't want to keep it and fired the lead 1901 and new interests entered when Henrik and Reinhold Gahn disappeared.

Between 1880 till 1910 several new important inventions appeared for iron production. Bessemer and Thomas process. These were much better than all other way to refine forgeable iron.

It also gave possibility for large production which demanded big producers. Now Avesta and Borlänge were established and the small works on countryside could not compete.

All railways  were very important and when decision that Wikmanhyttan should get a connection instead of Norn it was the death stroke. Norn ceased production 1916. Left were only the labor and they got work in forest and the new built power station.

In order to save the supply of iron Scania Vabis bought both Bruzaholm and Larsbo-Nord/Vikmanshyttan 1918. Any production was probably never started either in the foundry and the hammers. The eventual activities for these two disappeared when Scania Vabis went bankruptcy 1921.

The top of the furnace. Ref 1
The top of the furnace. Ref 1
The foundry building from 1790?. Ref 1
The foundry building from 1790?. Ref 1
Close up picture. Ref 1
Close up picture. Ref 1. Årsmarkering på en grundsten. Ref 1
Year marking on one ground stone. Ref 1. Doors for the church. Ref 1
Doors for the church. Ref 1. Church room. Ref 1
Church room. Ref 1.
The top of the rust oven. Someone has takenthe top part of bricks. Ref 1
The top of the rust oven. Someone has takenthe top part of bricks. Ref 1
The foundry from 1790 as it looks today. Ref 1
The foundry from 1790 as it looks today. Ref 1
Typically wire of the rust oven. Ref 1
Typically wiew of the rust oven. Ref 1
Den lilla anslutningebäcken genom Norn till Dammsjön. Ref 1
Den lilla anslutningebäcken genom Norn till Dammsjön. Ref 1
Overview of Norn. Ref 1
Overview of Norn. Ref 1
Room for prayer. Ref 1
Room for prayer. Ref 1
Top of the furnace. Top brick are missing here too. Ref 1
Top of the furnace. Top brick are missing here too. Ref 1
emptying part of the furnace. Ref 1
Emptying part of the furnace. Ref 1
Rustoven. Ref 1
Rustoven. Ref 1
Den lilla anslutningebäcken genom Norn till Dammsjön. Ref 1
The small connection stream through Norn ending in Dam lake. Ref 1
Overvire map. Ref 1
Overvire map. Ref 1
Living hous for priset or manager. Ref 1
Living hous for priset or manager. Ref 1

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Pictures from the following owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the apropriate permission:
Reference 1: © Björn Bellander  bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 49:
©Picture from wikipedia
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