The head frame of Gröndalsgruvan
Transcript from photo.
Down under the tower there is 352 m deep shaft with elevator. This shaft is called the Flora's shaft. It was started to made deeper 1870 to make it easier to get up the ore at this Gröndahl mine. 1886 the head frame was built and some years later the building was completed with a machinery house.
At this time head frames were built by timber with closed superstructures. The larger mine with it's head frame which is situated some 100 m from this one. It is the only one in the world built by slag stones material. These slag stones are made at Nordansjö foundry in special forms.
Inside the machine house the line device is preserved, It is of the kind bobbin winder, equipped with double hauler produced at Norberg Mechanical works. In the 1930 th it was rebuilt to he type Koepe winder. This was in order to raise the security.
1910 -1911 two Swedish steam powered compressors were installed of the mark Atlas and air compressor pipes were installed in the headings. Other installed machines got power from electrical engines. The compressed air was used for one man driller. This was pretty new for this time. Earlier these were handled by 2 to three men.
Klackberg is a mining field and has a long and exciting history. Already 1300 the place was known as iron mounting. The ore here are easy to break and has high percentage of manganese. There is also lime ore.
Limestone was broken in special lime stoner quarries. This material was needed in mortar and plaster. It was also added in foundries when iron ore was melted, this because limestone made it easy for slag formation. In the beginning limestone was called glue and this word are involved in many local names around Klackberg. One of these quarries is called Klackberg Glue mounting. One limestone oven is found at Klackberg house. It was used up to early 1900 and restored 1984.
Breaking of iron.
In the Stollen of Granrot one can find path after old breaking technic of iron. The stollen (heading), was a horizontal path inside the mounting was arranged in the end of 1700. In the roof one can see that the heading is made through fire/water technic. A big fire was set on the sides of the mount. The rock became fragile and was easy to pick the ore in small pieces. This way gave even walls, but sooty.
During the 1800 this way of breaking was replaced with gunpowder. It was both better and quicker to blast and get the ore i small pieces. This gunpowder was lit by sulfur thread. When this was not available the workers used tinder. Accidents were not unusual.
In 1860 gunpowder was replaced by dynamite which had much better blast force and more secure. On the walls one can see where the new technic were used, because they were uneven.
Cleaning an washing.
The ore had to be sorted when stored outside the mine. All sort sorts of people had to help with cleaning and washing away rocks from ore. Mainly it was women and young children and those who could not work under ground. Children started to work direct after school or confirmation.
From the beginning all ore was cleaned outside but later special houses were built. The ore was put on a rolling pick band and was sorted in different qualities.
The living way of workers.
During 1800 the breaking of ore was increased at Klackberg. 1880 the production was the largest around in Norberg. 1867 the production was 9600 tons. 30 years later it was 45000 tons.
This increased production requires more labor. In order to give the labor somewhere to live, around the head frame of Gröndahl, housings were built 1870. South of the manor Klacken apartments were built with red bricks 1890. This place was called Uddevalla. The apartment were for this time very rigid and modern.
The head frames.
The industrial buildings which there are in this area are built 1880 - 1920. The both head frames besides the "Storgruvan" and Gröndahl mines are built with slag stones. This material make them unique.
Both these frames are built over shafts which are over 300 m deep. The elevators and winders which were use to bring up the ore are mainly left and can be driven for demonstration. From the head frames there were transporters which took the ore for cleaning and washing houses to be sorted.
In 1880 machine drilling were used in the mines. They got power from compressed air and pipes were installed inside the mine.
At the turn of the century electricity was used to produce compressed air. The head frames were updated and got machine houses and electrical engines. Up to 1967 these mines were in used.
At Klackberg area there are much interesting concerning botany. Some unusual orchids are growing here. All these rare plant families like the area because of iron and lime stone mining.