One early waterwheel driving one hammer.  Ref 1
One early waterwheel driving one hammer. Ref 1
Foundries and mines in Bergslagen
Driving with mc to Sura works museum
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Björn Bellander. Pictures current 2010
Back  Swedish version  Look also in Picture gallery.
since 060105
Updated
2019-05-08
© Björn Bellander
Created 2010
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Akers Styckebruk foundry
Red earth
Stjarnsund
Kloster
Loa foundry
Pers foundry
Trummelsbergs foundry
Nora veteran railw.
Falu copper mine
Hillanget Ludvika
Tykarps cave
Riddar foundry copper
Ramnas rolling mill
Kratte furnace
Mojsen Grangesberg

On Sura axle forgotten on the country side. Ref 1
On Sura axle forgotten on the country side. Ref 1
One Sura wheel  1908, far away from a railway line.  Ref 1
One Sura wheel 1908, far away from a railway line. Ref 1
Wagon from 1875 produced at Atlas Works. Ref 1
Wagon from 1875 produced at Atlas Works. Ref 1

First design of wheel axles with teak reinforcement material. Ref 1
First design of wheel axles with teak reinforcement material. Ref 1

The first type of railway wheel is what you meet when entering the factory museum entrance of Surahammar. The first wheel type is shown on the picture above. This wheel started to be produced by order from Swedish railway department 1866. The design was called Mansell wheel and was a construction from England. It was aimed for private traffic and should give the wagon soft and silent travel. Because of this, teak wood was built in the wheel center. This was a good solution in England, but the climate in Sweden made the wood either dried and shrink or got wet and expanded. This caused serious accidents. Of course this design could not carry hig load and the movement of wheel surface  destroyed the forced fit of the wooden parts. The wheel became too elastic. If you visit Lapphyttan or look in Picture gallery. The wagon is produced 1875 at Atlas works and equiped with spokes. The teak design was only produced during one year, before Surahammar had solved the production process of the spoke wheel design.

Sura Works standard spoke wheel. Ref 1
Sura Works standard spoke wheel. Ref 1.

The engineer at the works solved all problems in one for the time excellent way and with handy workers Sura could deliver a wheel type which was used during a long time.
About this I will try to tell you after my visit at the factory museum with guiding from Mats who told me about the production and much more.

The frist design with teak wood at Scanis Vabis museum. Ref 1
The frist design with teak wood at Scanis Vabis museum. Ref 1

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Links

Puddelproces

Martinproces

Bessemerproces

 

Kolström river had some water falls and it was this that gave Surahammar power. Already 1500 was this water power used to activate a hammer.
Axel Oxenstierna installed 1637 one here. He got pig iron from all small foundries not far from Surahammar. More interest came when Kolström channel was build. Before 1850 the iron production was modest. 
There was a goldsmith named Eric Adolf Zethelius, who owned Nyby Works. He bought the works in Surahammar 1845 on executive auction. He was an inventor and knew about to produce iron. The large cost at this time was to get wooden coal to produce pig iron or buy stone coal from England. Sweden had also the problem to refine the iron to get it forgeable enough. In England they had invented a method to do this with the help of stone coal. This was called the puddle method. Instead Zethelius used wood which he could get in large amount from the forests around Surahammar. This called naturally the wood puddle method. It went like this. Step by step ore and pig iron which after melting were mixed together by the workers, the puddles, to round iron lumps. The oven was heated with wooden sticks. This work was made by the wifes of the smiths and in the afternoon after school by their children. This mixed iron was then refined with a hammer to get rid of as much as possible of slag. Anyway the iron became never complete free from slag. It became anyway a very good forgeable iron, for it's time. It suit in a good way for the product of Surahammar. The iron could also be rolled to produce plates and bar irons. It was also possible to press flanged ends to be used for compressed steam tanks. The Martin method was also introduced to get immer better type or iron. One interesting note about puddle iron is that some amount was exported to France to be used for parts in Eiffel tower. The reason was that this type of iron could be formed and didn't rust so much.

Wood puddle oven. Ref 1
Wood puddle oven. Ref 1


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Water wheel of the type under fall. Ref 1
Water wheel of the type under fall. Ref 1
Info abut a hammer. Ref 1
Info abut a hammer. Ref 1


 

Links

Karmansbo


 

Mumblingshammare. Note standing in position by a wooden part.  Ref 1
Mumblingshammare. Note standing in position by a wooden part. Ref 1

The hammer which refined the puddle iron. In fron stands the transport barrow including a mixed and heated lump to be pounded in the hammer. The hammer got power from the water wheel shown on the small picture. The lump was hammered till they had got a 0.5 m long and a 125 mm square lump. These were then used in the rolling mill, to make delivery form for later production.
The rolling mill was an important part in the production. In Karmansbo sthey still today show how a rolling mill works. This i done by the local club, first week of July. You can also study another rolling mill at Ramnäs smith. Thoug it is in much inferior stand.

Del av ett valsverk. Ref 1
Del av ett valsverk. Ref. 1.

The manager Zethelius and his son, Wilhelm built up Surahammar Works to a plate an bar iron producer.

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The wheels demanded  a possibility to be soft. Ref 1
The wheels demanded a possibility to be soft. Ref 1 Wheel model produced in cooperation with Sandviken. Ref 1
Wheel model produced in cooperation with Sandviken. Ref 1 Info about wheel smith. Ref 1
Info about wheel smith. Ref 1

Links

Flange wheel

 

Now in the 1860 when railways were progressing in Sweden. Surahammars Works got on direct request from railway department manager C. O. Troilius to start producing railway wheels. This made that a production started and work to follow the demands which the department demanded. This also signified changing from the puddle method to Martin and later according the Bessemer process. The development for iron process changed quickly and 1907 the puddle method was closed. 1873 Sandviken started to deliver wheel rings of steel from Bessemer iron. This proces made  it possible to reduce cost anad raised the amount of iron produced dramatically in the world. The first lucky Bessemer installation was mde in England 1865. The iron became now cleaned directly.
 
The production of railway wheels were rather complex and demanded iron of good quality. The first wheel type can be seen on page 1. Sura had the best iron up to this time. The wheel with teak inserts  was not good enough for Sweden and already after one year a new design came and this can still be seen on older cargo wagons. The spoke design. Only the outer rings were made from puddle steel. New models came soon.
The production of spoke wheels was made that a wheel ring was formed and turned. Furthermore a centrum was made and also the parts for pokes. These were bent from a preformed bar iron which had a thickness i the middle. See picture

Bending fixture for spokes. Probably produced in Surahammar. Ref 1
Bending fixture for spokes. Probably produced in Surahammar. Ref 1

This bar was bent in a fixture fro further refining.

Spoke fixture. Ref 1Welding of wheel center. Ref 1
Spoke fixture. Ref 1, Welding of wheel center. Ref 1.

The 8 preformed spokes were put in a fixture. In center the axle support was pressed in place. Then the spokes and center support were welded together. See the small coke comtainer.


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Info from wheel works. Ref 1
Info from wheel works. Ref 1A working staty for wheel production. Ref 1
A working staty for wheel production. Ref 1




 

The next step was to weld the spokes together according the picture. Welding of spokes. Ref 1
Welding of spokes. Ref 1

Next mission was to get the wheel ring pressed on the spoke and center part and then weld fill the empty v-rooms between spokes with iron and get it welded together. For this there was a special device. Note that the on by Krupp 1852 invented method to press fit a work ring, not yet were used. See link.

In order to get the wheelring in place. It was hammered. Ref 1
 In order to get the wheelring in place. It was hammered.Ref 1

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Oven for wheels. Ref 1
Oven for wheels. Ref 1

 

Links

Lancashire oven




 

To keep this production running weveral iron works around Surahammar were bought. There were Lisjö, Svanå and others. These had large forest areas where timber were fetched. Svanå had one Lancashire oven and this production of iron was used fro the wheel center. This oven is in good stand.

Lancashire oven from Svanå. Ref 1
Lancashire oven from Svanå. Ref 1

Furthermore there were a need for several preheating ovens for keeping the parts warm enough.

Keeping the parts warm in this oven. Note the worker has not his ffet fully in his wooden shoes.En varmhållningsugn. The heat! Ref. 1
Keeping the parts warm in this oven. Note the worker has not his ffet fully in his wooden shoes.En varmhållningsugn. The heat! Ref. 1

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The working place for driver. Ref 1
The working place for driver. Ref 1Vaulunder. Ref 1
Vaulunder. Ref 1Timber loaded on cargo wagon. Over 200 years old. Ref 1
Timber loaded on cargo wagon. Over 200 years old. Ref 1

Links

Kristinehams mek. works Locomotiv production

Kristinehamn mech



 

All transports within the production were made mostly by horse and wagons. Mostly there were farmer around which got this missions. The development went on and the works needed more heavy transports year around. A railroad was built between Surahammar and Lisjö to get all timber and other stuff which Lisjö delivered. This railway bank is today partly instead the road to Lisjö, after removal of the rail. One locomotive was ordered from Kristineham mechanical works and it was named Vaulunder. The cost was 11000 Skr and had production number 17. The railway was in use from 1876 to 1926.

Vaulunder used for tranporter from Lisjö. Ref 1
Vaulunder used for tranporter from Lisjö. Ref 1

Works wagons were bought from Kristinehamn - Sjöändan railway. It was three types of wagons. One for transporting animals, one for person transports and on for cargo. The timber on the picture comes from Lisjö and are for sure 200 years old. Around Lisjö there are still very old pines.

Vaulunder. Ref 1Vaulunder during work. Ref 1
Vaulunder. Ref 1, Vaulunder during work. Ref 1


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Funeral wagon. Ref 1
Funeral wagon. Ref 1Info plate fro funeral wagon. Ref 1
Info plate fro funeral wagon. Ref 1Horse cover used with funeral wagon. Ref 1
Horse cover used with funeral wagon. Ref 1

Links

Royal Swedish stable

Original 1903



 

All what were delivered from the factory were sent by railway. For this there was a large switching system for cargo wagons. This was handled by locomotives. These pictures shows the types.

Brukets växellok vid sista arbetsdagen. Ref 1

Brukets växellok vid sista arbetsdagen. Ref 1

The railway depot in the museum, which was built only for locomotive Vaulunder and wagon types. Here there are one person wagon for horses and also the funeral wagon for Surahammar. These are in extensive condition. Both wagon are produced by Nordbergs wagon factory in Stockholm. All other 8 wagons are on deposit at Swedish Royal stable and it is not possible for general public to see them.
This wagon was for long time used fro marrige tranport. Ref 1Horse wagon model coupé. Ref 1

 

 

 



This wagon was for long time used fro marrige tranport. Ref 1, Horse wagon model coupé. For weddings. Ref 1

Surahammar factory had 9 horsewagons for person transports and one Vabis car produced 1903. Reda the story in MC-museum webbsite. The first car is on deposit at Technical museum in Stockholm. It was built in 8 copies all equipped with railway wheels. They were used to control the railway line to Norberg.


Other Car MC museums in this website
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Museumlist
Adalen car museum
Arnolds_cars & odds ends
Arvika car mc museum
Assa car museum
AUDI Ingolstadt
Autoseum
Autostadt

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Garage round in Halsingland
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Hannover air museum
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My Vehicles
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Robot Museum Sweden
Regnsjo, SAF cars
Panzeranzer museum
ScaniaVabis museum
Sinsheim museum
Skokloster car museum
SSK Boxcar
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Sparreholm museum
Sagen Technical museum
Surahammar MC
Swedish Air force museum
Swedish submarines
Torsong MC museum
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Technical museum Helsinb
Technical museum Stockholm
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Ziegenhagen

Other sites
Military service
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Trainmuseum Sweden
Vasteras Airmuseum
Hagfors Industrimuseum
Karlskrona Marina

Pictures from the following owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the apropriate permission:
Reference 1: © Björn Bellander  bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Responsible for the collection is Surahammar Community
. To visit this museum call Surahammar Community or visit MC Museet.
Webbsida som avhandlar Surahammars Bruksmuseum 8 pages
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