Tool for rail reparation. Ref. 1
Tool for rail reparation. Ref. 1
Foundries and mines in Bergslagen
Driving with mc to Langshyttan

Text and pictures Björn Bellander. Pictures 2014
Back Swedish version See also Locomotive Tools
Since 060105
Updated
2017-12-31
© Björn Bellander
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Angelsbergs foundry
Ags foundry
Bispbergs mine
Bjorndammens foundry
Dunshammar
Flatenbergs foundry
Flogbergets mine
Grangshammars works
Hogfors
Klackberg
Karmansbo
Klenshyttan foundry
Korsans works
Kloten
Lapphyttan
Langshyttan
Mellings ruin
Moss mine
Norns foundry
Ohs works
Oljeon
Ombenning
Ostra Silvberg mine
Polhemshjulet
Sala Silver mine
Svinryggen
Sura works museum
Skottvangs mine
Trangfors
Ulfs foundryhyttan
Vintjarns mine

Akers Styckebruk hytta
Roda Jorden
Stjarnsund
Loa hytta
Pershyttan
Trummelsbergs hytta
Falu koppargruva
Hillänget Ludvika
Tykarpsgrottan
Pershyttan
Riddarhyttan koppar
Ramnäs valsverk
Kratte masugn
Mojsen Grangesberg

Overview of the 1759 foundry. Ref. 1
Overview of the 1759 foundry. Ref. 1 Inlet hole for the foundry pipe. Ref. 1
Inlet hole for the foundry pipe. Ref. 1
Info about working with a foundry 1. Ref. 1, 54
Info about working with a foundry 1. Ref. 1, 54
Infor about working in a foundry 2. Ref. 1, 54
Infor about working in a foundry 2. Ref. 1, 54
Coal sledge. Ref. 1
Coal sledge. Ref. 1
Empty place for the foundry. Ref. 1
Empty place for the foundry. Ref. 1
Pig iron frpm the foundry. Ref. 1
Pig iron frpm the foundry. Ref. 1
Model over Langshyttan. Ref. 1
Model over Langshyttan. Ref. 1

Links

(some may be change to english)

Kloster

Kloster works

de Lavals forge

Langshyttan

Historical works club in Langsyttan

Channels

Kloster works

Edske foundry

Bessemermethod

Martinprocess

Thomasprocess

Ld process

BLJ-Rail line

Langshyttans blast foundry from 1861. Ref. 1
Langshyttans blast foundry from 1861. Ref. 1

Langshyttan
The lakes
In Husby parish are there 4 lakes which together was the condition for the industrial expansion for Langshyttan during 1800 and 1900.

The most northern lake was Dammsjon which take care of the water from north. This area raise to 354 m over the sea.. To this lake there are 3 water courses.

This lake the Dammsjon let the water to the south into a smaller lake. This is Rallingen lake 108 m over the sea. From this lake there is another water course to Tyllingen lake at 105 m. This lake also gets it's water from a larger lake named Langen at 109 m. Most amount of water came from lake Langen.

Map over Langshyttan water system. Hitta.se
Map over Langshyttan water system. Hitta.se
All this water system is situated 20 km north Hedemora in Husby parish and all this water flows through the small community of Langshyttan. This small village has been known since 1427 and is not noted in writing until 1535. Some km south the water ends in Amungen end then flowing into river Dalalven. The water system can be studied in Google Earth,

The power which is possible to get from these levels differences and flowing water can create presumptions for iron works which were created along the courses that gave enough with water around the year.
There are at least 5 hammers known along the water system. The development was hold back by the difficulties to transport ore. It could only be transported during winter time along frozen lakes and water courses.

The iron works owners
In Langshyttan there were only about 10 farmers owing land and forest. These farmers got together and build a foundry in 1500. This foundry took advantage of the flowing water which came through the small village. Only farmers that had the ownership of forest and cultivated fields had this right. They owned the foundry together in shares. There was only these kind of farmer that had this solely right. The ore which was used was delivered from several smaller mines. Mainly from Bispberg and Garpenberg. All the coal came from their own forests.

Building year of the new foundry 1759.  Ref. 1
Building year of the new foundry 1759. Ref. 1
1759 year foundry today. Ref. 1
1759 year foundry today. Ref. 1

There was 2 smaller foundries. One of them was banned by the authority in Stockholm. The left over was later scraped and then a complete new foundry was built 1759 in place of the still existing. This new built one became at this time the biggest in Sweden for some time and could deliver 2000 tons of pig iron a year.
From the beginning there was no roof over the foundry and also no real rust oven. The development went on and 1840 gas was taken from the top of the foundry to preheat the ore. This gas was led through a wooden pipe to a rust oven built behind the foundry. Now the production really was started. But still there was problem to transport the ore. For the moment it was no solutions for this.

Rallingsberg

So called LUS to be able reading a magnet field. Ref. 1
So called "LOUSE" is able to indicateg a magnet field. Ref. 1
Everything rolled on until a farmer's farm hand, Clas Westerholm discovered a metalliferous vein 1841, about 700 m long vein east of the lake Rallingen. He investigated this vein with a sort of compass in Sweden called LUS. Here the needle moved downwards and it is also called magnetometer. The investigating gave the result that this mining field could be very profitable, mostly because of the position.

Channels
The foundry could now much easier get ore down to Langshyttan. But still they must use horse and sledge. There were of cause other solutions. This started with to dig a new  channel up to the mining area, from the lake Rallingen. The distance was about 500 m up to the mine. Now barges could be used to freight ore and they were punted down to Rallingen. Over this lake they were pulled over and through actual water course to the lake Tyllingen. Then it was another 500 m to the foundry. This last transport was made manually. Compared with all other transports, this was like a dream.

Kloster is taking over
The farmer's shares in the foundry were now on the way to end up and the owner of the new mine became Kloster which was a small village situated some 20 km from Langshyttan. In Kloster there was also a foundry which once had started because of Gudsberga monastery in the end of 1400, all with the help of a deed of gift. It's mother church was Alvastra monastery. The king of Sweden Gustav Vasa took over this church through the reduction 1527 and instead started an iron industry and even the largest powder production in Sweden started 1741. A plate rolling mill was also founded here 1801. Kloster company became leading in Sweden. One of the employee, which first came to Langshyttan 1876 was Gustav de Laval. One of the greatest inventors in Sweden. Most known for the milk separator. Also through him the Bessemer method was updated.
This company had much money to invest which the foundry owners in Langshyttan didn't have. Kloster owned the mine in Rallingsberg, but as long as there were shares among the farmers they could not take over. Since long time Kloster had bought shares, when they were for sale and 1859 Bengt Gustav Jansson sold the last one. His memory is taken care of in his old living house "Bengt homestead. This house is in place just beside the foundry from 1759. This house is now the center of Historical club of Langshyttan.
 
The new foundry
When Kloster had full economic control over Langshyttan large investment started to be made 1859. A new foundry was built and ready 1861. See picture. When fully built and and in good working order it could produce 5000 tons of pig iron a year. The old one was closed and is today, 2014, one of the finest  preserved foundries. Here the Historical Club has gathered all kind of old production tools and machines. The new foundry that was built was later rebuilt with an higher and broader pipe. The old one was scraped. Probably there were from the beginning one foundry and one rust oven besides. There are no notes about this.

More channels
Next investment was to build better channels in order to transport ore. The next one got the name ore channel. All ore could now be delivered all the way to the foundry. This was a channel from Tyllingen up to the blast foundry.

Now Kloster AB got paid having Gustav de Laval as an employee. There was problems with to much water in Rallingberg mine and in order to pump it away a new channel was built 1865. Here a new turbine was installed.

This was a construction made by de Laval. To get more water a channel from lake Dammsjon and Rallingen added water and from there connected by a wooden drum down to the turbine. This system gave so much electricity that electrical drilling machines could be installed in the mine. This new channel got the name Hiens channel.

Bessemer method and others
New inventions how to make pig iron forgeable came from England. Instead for using the Lancashire method with a 100 kg  glowing iron clod, it was invented to blow oxygen through the flowing melted iron from the foundry. This was made inside a converter, Now the contaminations were burned away and the steel became forgeable. This was an investment that prevented Langshyttan to be caught by the "foundry death" in the end of 1800.

There was of course problems in the beginning. The method was tested, but failed, 1857, by wholesaler Pontus Kleman and John Leffler. Göran Fredrik Göransson, as one of the founder of Sandvik Iron AB bought 20% of the patent when visiting England. He made successful  trials in  Sweden at Edskens foundry which was owned by Högbo Works.

This cost money and for this reason the method was not accepted until 1865.
To produce this air flow with high pressure, there was a need for high amount of electricity. For this reason a new channel beside the ore channel was cut 1870 as this one could not give enough with water for the Bessemer turbines.

During the years several different methods for cleaning iron have seen daylight. At the same time the Bessemer method, which blow
Info about Martinoven. Ref. 1
Info about Martinoven. Ref. 1
oxygen from bottom of a converter, there was the Martin method. This built on the way to mix scrap iron with pig iron. For phosphorus ore the Thomas process was important. This last method made that the Grangesberg mines could be opened. The method of late 1900 is called LD process. In this, oxygen is blown with high pressure through a pipe (lance) on the melted iron surface.
One Martin-works was started 1905
The rest of the Martin-works. See the three edges shadow. Bild från Hitta.se.
The rest of the Martin-works. See the three edges shadow. Picture from internet www.hitta.se.
in Langshyttan. There was also a iron foundry for most use in the factory. The production needs during WWI made that there were 3 Martin-works 1919. From this building there is only the northern wall left today as it was not allowed to tear it down. There is also an electric steel works including an induction oven and a cold roller mill. The last is a heritage from Kloster.

Stjärnsund

Christofer Polhem's Stjärnsund was merged 1871 and the company got the name Kloster AB. After that the blast foundry was ready made, new investments were on the way, 1883. Iron foundry, mechanical works and iron billet roller mill. Stjarnsund was changed to a hardware works and for transports between Langshyttan, Stjarnsund and
The locomotive Kloster on fair beside the foundry. Ref. 1
The locomotive Kloster on fair beside the foundry. Ref. 1
Byvalla a railway was build. The end station was Byvalla where reloading was done to SJ northern main railway. This was started 1889 and ready 1891. This railway had a gauge of 891 and named BLJ.  Langshyttan became larger than Stjarnsund 1910 which made that the central lead was moved to Langshyttan.

Kloster
The old Kloster with it's powder works was laid down 1871. The plate roller mill had no function because of bad transports and lack of water power. The roller mill was stopped 1888. This was moved to Stjarnsund and Langshyttan. Kloster is today only a place of old time interest because of Gustav de Laval and iron industry development for Husby parish. The manor house which was built for works leader is today a "living on a farm".

New products
The developments during 1920. Langshyttan succeeded with stainless steel iron. This became a new product a rolled in plates or as thread. For this a cold roller mill was built 1919. After this high speed steel became a large product. In spite of these progresses Langshyttan was out of money and had to merge with Fagersta Works 1927. This company was centrally created to prevent different works investing in same products. Remember that 400 years earlier Kloster had been initiated by Gustav Vasa.

Decline after WWII.
The impressing blast foundry which since 1861 supplied Langshyttan with pig iron was not needed anymore and it was blown down 1948. The building was remade for a store and the foundry pipes were scraped. When I 2014 went into the second hand shop in the bottom of the building to recognize the once impressing pipes. There was nothing to be seen. There was only moulds which are hard to translate into blast foundry pipes. The works now used Martin ovens to get iron. Stjarnsund had been shut down and there were no more need for transporting wares and the railway was sold 1964. Martin-works were discontinued 1971 and steel billets instead was bought for the roller mill production. During these structure rationalizations, the producers of high speed steel merged to one company named Kloster High Speed Steel. This was later bought by a French company and named Erasteel Kloster AB. The stainless steel part went to Avesta Outokumpu Stainless.

The end
It is easy to understand that the shut downs of the left over production 2014 should come. The last production was divided between in a reconstruction and swallowed by a Finnish Foundry and a German iron work.
Left over today 2015 is only the French producer Erasteel in Langshyttan.
During the business boom for Langshyttan the number of inhabitants 1960 was 3298 and now 2014 it will decrease to just over 1200. This is in the line for the development of Swedish iron industry during several years.

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Pictures from the following owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the appropriate permission:
Reference 1: © Björn Bellander  bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 54: Historical Langshyttan Club photo fair
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