In Husby parish are there 4 lakes which together was the
condition for the industrial expansion for Langshyttan during 1800
The most northern lake was Dammsjon which take care of the water
from north. This area raise to 354 m over the sea.. To this lake
there are 3 water courses.
This lake the Dammsjon let the water to
the south into a smaller lake. This is Rallingen lake 108 m over the sea.
From this lake there is another water course to Tyllingen lake at
105 m. This lake also gets it's water from a larger lake named
Langen at 109 m. Most amount of water came from lake Langen.
All this water system is situated 20 km north Hedemora in Husby parish
and all this water flows through the small community of Langshyttan.
This small village has been known since 1427 and is not noted in
writing until 1535. Some km south the water ends in Amungen end then flowing into
river Dalalven. The water system can be studied in Google Earth,
Map over Langshyttan water system. Hitta.se
The power which is possible to get from these levels differences
and flowing water can create presumptions for iron works which were
created along the courses that gave enough with water around the
There are at least 5 hammers known along the water system. The
development was hold back by the difficulties to transport ore. It
could only be transported during winter time along frozen lakes and
The iron works owners
In Langshyttan there were only about 10 farmers owing land and
forest. These farmers got together and build a foundry in 1500.
This foundry took advantage of the flowing water which came through
the small village. Only farmers that had the ownership of forest and
cultivated fields had this right. They owned the foundry together in
shares. There was only these kind of farmer that had this solely
right. The ore which was used was delivered from several smaller
mines. Mainly from Bispberg and Garpenberg. All the coal came from
their own forests.
Building year of the new foundry 1759. Ref. 1
1759 year foundry today. Ref. 1
There was 2 smaller foundries. One of them was banned by the authority in
Stockholm. The left over was later scraped
and then a complete new foundry was built 1759 in place of the still
existing. This new built one
became at this time the biggest in Sweden for some time and could
deliver 2000 tons of pig iron a year.
From the beginning there was no roof over the foundry and also no
real rust oven. The development went on and 1840 gas was taken from
the top of the foundry to preheat the ore. This gas was led through a wooden pipe to a rust oven built behind the foundry. Now the
production really was started. But still there was problem to
transport the ore. For the moment it was no solutions for this.
Everything rolled on until a farmer's farm hand, Clas Westerholm discovered a
metalliferous vein 1841, about 700 m long vein east of the lake Rallingen. He investigated this vein with a sort of compass in
Sweden called LUS. Here the needle moved downwards and it is also called
magnetometer. The investigating gave the result that this mining
field could be very profitable, mostly because of the position.
So called "LOUSE" is able to indicateg a magnet field. Ref.
The foundry could now much easier get ore down to Langshyttan. But
still they must use horse and sledge. There were of cause other
solutions. This started with to dig a new channel up to the
mining area, from the lake Rallingen. The distance was about 500 m
up to the mine. Now barges could be used to freight ore and they were
punted down to Rallingen. Over this lake they were pulled over and
through actual water course to the lake Tyllingen. Then it was
another 500 m to the foundry. This last transport was made
manually. Compared with all other transports, this was like a dream.
Kloster is taking over
The farmer's shares in the foundry were now on the way to end up and
the owner of the new mine became Kloster which was a small village situated some 20 km
from Langshyttan. In Kloster there was also a foundry which once had
started because of Gudsberga monastery in the end of 1400, all with
the help of a deed of gift. It's mother church was Alvastra
monastery. The king of Sweden Gustav Vasa took over this church
through the reduction 1527 and instead started an iron industry and
even the largest powder production in Sweden started 1741. A plate
rolling mill was also founded here 1801. Kloster company became
leading in Sweden. One of the employee, which first came to
Langshyttan 1876 was
Gustav de Laval. One of the greatest inventors in Sweden. Most known
for the milk separator. Also through him the Bessemer method was
This company had much money to invest which the foundry owners in
Langshyttan didn't have. Kloster owned the mine in Rallingsberg, but as
long as there were shares among the farmers they could not take
over. Since long time Kloster had bought shares, when they were for
sale and 1859 Bengt Gustav Jansson sold the last one. His memory is
taken care of in his old living house "Bengt homestead. This house is
in place just beside the foundry from 1759. This house is now the
center of Historical club of Langshyttan.
The new foundry
When Kloster had full economic control over Langshyttan large
investment started to be made 1859. A new foundry was built and
ready 1861. See
picture. When fully built and and in good working order it could
produce 5000 tons of pig iron a year. The old one was closed and is
today, 2014, one of the finest preserved foundries. Here the
Historical Club has gathered all kind of old production tools and
machines. The new foundry that was built was later rebuilt with an
higher and broader pipe. The old one was scraped. Probably there
were from the beginning one foundry and one rust oven besides. There
are no notes about this.
Next investment was to build better channels in order to
transport ore. The next one got the name ore channel. All ore could
now be delivered all the way to the foundry. This was a channel from Tyllingen up to the blast foundry.
Now Kloster AB got paid having Gustav de Laval as an employee.
There was problems with to much water in Rallingberg mine and in
order to pump it away a new channel was built 1865. Here a new
turbine was installed.
This was a construction made by de Laval.
To get more water a channel from lake Dammsjon and Rallingen added
water and from there
connected by a wooden drum down to the turbine. This system gave so
much electricity that electrical drilling machines could be
installed in the mine. This new channel got the name Hiens channel.
Bessemer method and others
New inventions how to make pig iron forgeable came from England.
Instead for using the Lancashire method with a 100 kg glowing
iron clod, it was invented to blow oxygen through the flowing melted
iron from the foundry. This was made inside a converter, Now the
contaminations were burned away and the steel became forgeable. This
was an investment that prevented Langshyttan to be caught by the
"foundry death" in the end of 1800.
There was of course problems in the beginning. The method was
tested, but failed, 1857, by wholesaler
Pontus Kleman and John Leffler. Göran Fredrik Göransson, as one of
the founder of Sandvik Iron AB bought 20% of the patent when
visiting England. He made successful trials in Sweden at
Edskens foundry which was owned by Högbo Works.
This cost money and
for this reason the method was not accepted until 1865.
To produce this air flow with high pressure, there was a need for
high amount of electricity. For this reason a new channel beside the
ore channel was cut 1870 as this one could not give enough with
water for the Bessemer turbines.
During the years several different methods for cleaning iron have
seen daylight. At the same time the Bessemer method, which blow
oxygen from bottom of a converter, there was the Martin method. This built on
the way to mix scrap iron with pig iron. For phosphorus ore the
Thomas process was important. This last method made that the
Grangesberg mines could be opened. The method of late 1900 is called
LD process. In this, oxygen is blown with high pressure through a
pipe (lance) on the melted iron surface.
Info about Martinoven. Ref. 1
One Martin-works was started 1905
There was also a iron foundry for most use in the factory. The
production needs during WWI made that there were 3 Martin-works
1919. From this building there is only the northern wall left today
as it was not allowed to tear it down. There is also an electric
steel works including an induction oven and a cold roller mill. The
last is a heritage from Kloster.
The rest of the Martin-works. See the three edges shadow.
Picture from internet www.hitta.se.
Christofer Polhem's Stjärnsund was merged 1871 and the company got
the name Kloster AB. After that the blast foundry was ready made,
new investments were on the way, 1883. Iron foundry, mechanical
works and iron billet roller mill. Stjarnsund was changed to a
hardware works and for transports between Langshyttan, Stjarnsund
railway was build. The end station was Byvalla where reloading was
done to SJ northern main railway. This was started 1889 and ready
1891. This railway had a gauge of 891 and named BLJ. Langshyttan
became larger than Stjarnsund 1910 which made that the central lead
was moved to Langshyttan.
The locomotive Kloster on fair beside the foundry. Ref. 1
The old Kloster with it's powder works was laid down 1871. The
plate roller mill had no function because of bad transports and lack
of water power. The roller mill was stopped
1888. This was moved to Stjarnsund and Langshyttan. Kloster is today
only a place of old time interest because of Gustav de Laval and
iron industry development for Husby parish. The manor house which
was built for works leader is today a "living on a farm".
The developments during 1920. Langshyttan succeeded with
stainless steel iron. This became a new product a rolled in plates
or as thread. For this a cold roller mill was built 1919. After this
high speed steel became a large product. In spite of these
progresses Langshyttan was out of money and had to merge with
Fagersta Works 1927. This company was centrally created to prevent
different works investing in same products. Remember that 400 years
earlier Kloster had been initiated by Gustav Vasa.
Decline after WWII.
The impressing blast foundry which since 1861 supplied Langshyttan
with pig iron was not needed anymore and it was blown down 1948. The
building was remade for a store and the foundry pipes were scraped.
When I 2014 went into the second hand shop in the bottom of the
building to recognize the once impressing pipes. There was nothing
to be seen. There was only moulds which are hard to translate into
blast foundry pipes. The works now used Martin ovens to get iron. Stjarnsund
had been shut down and there were no more need for transporting
wares and the railway was sold 1964. Martin-works were discontinued
1971 and steel billets instead was bought for the roller mill
production. During these structure rationalizations, the producers
of high speed steel merged to one company named Kloster High Speed
Steel. This was later bought by a French company and named Erasteel
Kloster AB. The stainless steel part went to Avesta Outokumpu Stainless.
It is easy to understand that the shut downs of the left over
production 2014 should come. The last production was divided between
in a reconstruction and swallowed by a Finnish Foundry and a German
Left over today 2015 is only the French producer Erasteel in
During the business boom for Langshyttan the number of inhabitants
1960 was 3298 and now 2014 it will decrease to just over 1200. This
is in the line for the development of Swedish iron industry during