Den Ju 52 was placed many years outside the museum. Ref 1 Airplanes at Svedino museum
Text and pictures Björn Bellander
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2016-06-24
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Page 1

Created 100314

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Junkers Ju 52

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Junkers Ju-52


Hannover air museum

Sinsheim museum



Junkers at Luftfahrtsmuseum Hannover. Ref 1

Ju 52 now placed inside the museum. Ref 1
Junkers Ju-52 Also called Tante Ju.
Produced first time 1936. 3 BMW132 powered 725 ps and max speed of 264 km/h. Total production was 5500. The first version, 1931, had only one engine and the pilots was forced to crawl through the cabin window from the front. A small "Brookland window" was put in front to prevent the engine oil to hit the pilots. You can see such a plane at Luftfarhtsmuseum in Hannover just behind the exhibition fair of Hannover. This museum also put in money to take home 4 Ju-52 that was sunk in the Norwegian fjord outside Narvik. You can get an interesting video from this mission. After the war several 100 was produced in Spain where Germany during the civil war had tested it through war material help for Franco. The aircraft was also used by the German paratroops to invade Crete. Max Schemling once heavy weight champion jumped out of such a plane and survived the war.
When the Ju52 was place outside the museum. Ref 1Front view showing the BMW engines. Ref 1
It is remarkable that this plane which had been parked outside during tenths of years still is able to be shown when moved inside museum hangar. Svedino is though not that organization that put more money than necessary on an object. The airplane is now newly painted and looks very handsome. You cannot see anything inside. Note the oil cooler just under each engine. One airplane is missing in the hall and that is the Canberra built in Canada which is sold or garaged somewhere else.


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SAAB J35 Dragon

 

Links

War archive Nov 05


J35 Draken outside Aalholms museum Denmark in a terrblle bad state.. Ref 1
Dragon outside a hangar at Duxford. Ref 1
By Swedish Air Force renovated Saab J35 at Roll-Out Västerås 2007. Ref 1

J35 Dragon. Ref 1
The history of the Swedish fighter J35 Dragon started with the knowledge that Sweden must have an aircraft which was able to fight high altitude bombers which were under development in the Soviet. It had to be able to fly at 13000 level with over sound speed, land on war fields like roads. Short take of and landing length, about 800 and 600 m. The designer was Erik Bratt at SAAB.
This aircraft was projected already 1949. It was before the Swedish J29 Barrel was delivered, 1951. This aircraft was designated J35 and later with the nickname Dragon. It's first take of was in October 1955 and delivering to air wings 1960. The development letter reach F and production ceased 1974. Some aircrafts were exported to Finland, Denmark and Austria. In Austria  they are still in service 2004. NASA has got some for testing and it is also at least one aircraft in private ownership. At Duxford there is one donated by Swedish Air Force. In Denmark outside the car museum of Aahlholm is one sad unit exhibited. The Dragon was in service for 46 years and 615  were build.
To test this idea of so called super sonic character a small version was build, Little Dragon, which also can be seen at museum. I remember that in the the 50th there was an air jubilee over Stockholm. At this opportunity the Air Force had sent the Little Dragon. It flew rather high and made some rotations before it disappeared. There is also a so called trainee mockup
for education of pilots. The design of this J35 Draken at Svedino museum. Ref 1aircraft was a double delta wing where the inner thick part gave the fighter high speeds and also place for landing gears weapon and fuel. The outer part of the wing gave it good low speed qualities.
The small picture is from Roll Out at Västerås Flying museum 2007. It is one renovated Dragon by Swedish Air Force. It is in mint condition and is nice to see closely. Something for an enthusiast.
Generally the J35 was a lucky construction and had good development potential.
 


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Links


Saab J29 Barrel

SAAB 1101

Me P1101

J29F Renovation

Roy Fröjdh's website


The sad end of Red-Erik. Ref 12


 

J29 Barrel in the air hall. Ref 1
Saab J29 was projected 1945. Serial production started 1950 and the last aircrafts were delivered 1956. It first replaced the A21 propeller version 1953. The design of the J29 is from the beginning a German project for a arrow wing fighter, Messerschmitt P1101. The winning forces shared and took what they wanted from the defeated Germans. The project P1101, a Swedish engineer from SAAB got (bought?) drawings and report in shady ways, in Switzerland. These were handed over to the border of SAAB. Lars Brising at that time chief designer at SAAB put in several suggestions with this as the base. In this way it became a J29 of the Messerschmitt beginning project. The Swedish J29 Barrel became the national pride in Sweden. In spite of this hidden origin the J29 became a very potent fighter for it's time and was in service till 1965. 661 copies were build. The Swedish pilots were not used to these advanced aircrafts and there were high efforts on education. With this new kind of flying 230 J29 were crashed  and many of them with the lost of the pilot. These accidents were believed to be caused by the fact that there were no 2 seat school version. For  this time the project was complicated and in Sweden there was no qualified Swedish test pilot to find. Saab hired an English pilot, Bob Moore for this job. The first take of was 1948. The J29 is well known for at least two things. World record on track in speed and service in Kongo. At one fighter visit in Italy one J29 was damaged and it was presented to Italy because it was to expensive to repair in place. The Swedish Air Force leader didn't realized the future value of old historical fighters. Shoot or fire them in pieces. I can never understand that it was a better schooling for pilots to shoot at an old fighter on ground. This was only showing the way of thinking at that time. If enough copies could have been stored the air force Museum today 2007 could have money enough to have an air force museum of a high level. This would be good for Swedish history. Lucky enough there are several of these aircrafts left for enthusiast with money to be put in order again. In Sweden there was for a long time no flying Barrel. When the old mechanics and engineers realized this they got money from SAAB, firms and donations to put a good copy in order. This was a job that was completed 2007. Only one country bought J29 and it was Austria. They bought used aircrafts which got a complete renovation. The Austrian pilots were trained in Sweden. Up to this day the Swedish people speaks with a proud voice about J29 Barrel which made the Swedish air industry well known in the world.


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SAAB A32 Lance

Links

A32 i America 2

Saab A32 History 1

SAAB D22 Computer 1

SAAB D22 Computer 2


A32 Lansen in Söderhamn.
Lance at Goleta Air in USA. Ref 11

J32 Lance at Svedino. Note the extra petrol tank under body. Ref 1
In the beginning of the 50th the air forces distinguish between military aircraft for different missions. The night mission had its Venom. The fighters had their Hunters. Sweden had also the B18 and B17 which were bombers. Propeller aircrafts were too old fashioned. The air leading group had also decided in order to make a bomber effective, it had to be able to carry heavy bombs, fly fast and high. Little Sweden could not afford such an investment. They decided to put money in attack or as it was named during the war dive bombers. Besides they had used J21A for this. This type was although not a good one. Attack air aircrafts could defeat goals with high precision. Saab got the task 1946 to design a suitable aircraft. This suggestion was ready 1949 and SAAB started to build. In order to build a modern jetfighter SAAB realized that the designer no longer could sit and draw and count by hand with the stick. The stick didn't deliver accuracy enough. It should take too long time. It would be difficult to make the pieces changeable. The construction office went over to a coordinate system. Every measure was counted from zero. In order to get help for this SAAB and Ericsson designed the computer power of that time. Later SAAB build computers with the name D22. This computer was used for the dragon. Although the development of computers went so fast that SAAB could not hang on and later sold the whole concept.
This early design was at the time proved to be Saab A32 Lance and it first test flight took place in November 1952. It was common in Sweden, after the war, to baptize a military aircraft with a nickname. Different wing angles was tested on a Saab Safir. This was done in half scale with 35°. During this time STAL in Finspång was working to design a jet engine. It was called Dovern after a lake in the Finspång area. This engine was tested on a hill just near the city and also mounted on a Avro Lancaster which was bought from England. They worked with the trials 24 hours and the people living in town had certain difficulties to sleep. Although they accepted these problems for the good sake. There were lots of demo testing to show how good the durability of the engine was. The test people threw ice cubes into the air intake of the engine. This could be done because the rotor blades were made of a special stainless steel. Further development showed that they could not reach a satisfactory power output and for reaching this cost should go to high. It was decided to buy a license for Rolls Royce Avon instead. The Lance was equipped with 4 20 mm canons. Big trouble was encountered because the intakes suck gun powder gases which made the rotor blades dirty. Although the patrons could be a bad factor. These canons were sparely or not at all used during  training. Compare problems with Hawker Hunter. Patron exit was done through holes for each canon. Trial was done for air control with plates outside the front wheel. Gun powder gases was led further back to exit holes. I have not succeeded to get the ultimate l:st solution. Picture  from F15 Söderhamn (Ref 1). But in principle the time was gone for guns. The fighters were equipped with all different types of rockets. Canons could be placed under the wings. In the middle under the body a bulb was added. This was an extra petrol tank. It had to be covered with neoprene to be protected for the patrons. As all military aircrafts A32 Lance was continuously developed with different versions as night attack, fighter with different types of armaments.
This type was not sold to other countries but 3 aircrafts came to America in different ways. 1 aircraft was given to France and one to Spain. In Sweden there is one flying recently renovated and one at the museums in Linköping and Söderhamn. Read my links.
Between the years 1955-58 297 Lance were delivered and they replaced B18. The lance became a long lived aircraft and was very much liked by the pilots and it flew in service till 1987 lastly used as target tower. To be mounted on a tower is the fate for all military fighters when time has over rolled them.


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SAAB J37 Viggen

 

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Dates in the story of Viggen

Saab 37 Viggen
 





 

AJS 37 Viggen. Ref 1
Viggen became the most powerful military air aircraft ever built in Sweden. Such an aircraft Sweden will not ever more develop. I was once working with organization of entertainment at a Mantorp Park drag racing competition. It was in that time when Canon supported a dragster. The organizer had asked for a show with one Viggen. All the stand was full with about 20000 spectators, sun was shining and temperature was about 26°, all soft drinks, ice creams were since long time sold out. In the urinating places it was flooding. In the pause a Viggen came in over the race track, may be 75 to 100 m high, with the lowest speed, swinging a little side to side in about an angle of 30°. The after burner was lit just before the starting grid.Viggen just over the grid. Ref 1 A sound one never has heard. As a true dragster spirit the fighter standing still for a half second before it with an imposing thunder accelerated straight up. On the race track grid it became almost like a tornado, smell of kerosene from exhausts, and under the stands nearby all empty cans were flown away. The girls put their hand before faces and the boys with a little to much beer in stomach, screaming of joy. It was just the like of an occasionally opportunity that only happens once in life.
Viggen had to replace the Lance and FFV put already 1961 in orders for a Fighter, attack and searching abilities. This air aircraft should carry a Pratt & Whitney engine which should be further developed at Swedish Air Engines. In the end it gave 7415 traction power and 13125 with after burner. Different sources gives different figures. Compare with the Lance, 4880 and 6500. Viggen was first flown February 1974 by Erik Dahlström. With the new engine Pelle Pellebergs took the aircraft in the air 1974. It had such facilities that it could move backwards. JA-37 was on serial production September 1971. Trail was made to sell it to Denmark, Norway, Belgium and India. All these were Nato countries except India. The Nato countries choose the American F16. For India export allowance was not given due to the engine. From 1997 the aircraft got updated mainly for the computers. This was due to a delivery delay of J39 Gripen. Totally 149 aircrafts were ordered. Although the chaos that was broken out when Swedish plans for reducing defense costs were settled, there is no figure how many air aircrafts which were placed at the wings. 1990 the producing time was over.


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SAAB 105 SK 60

Links

Wikipedia Sk-60



 

SK 105. Ref 1

Saab began to deliver the Dragon J35 1956 to the wings. Now it was time to put the successful designer Erik Bratt into work with something new. The Saab board had in mind something like a business or an air plane for the board. May be a sport air craft for the international market. Now Erik put out the old drawings for the Dragon and also the "Little Dragon", Saab 210. His suggestion became of course a small Dragoon but with 2 engines. This pilot study was ready 1958. At the same time KFF asked for a new trainer to replace the SK-61 Scottish Aviation Bulldog. KFF also wanted to combine this plane as a light attack air craft. This made that a "normal" winged plane and a high tail plane was designed. The order of this only Erik Bratt knows. The plane also got a fully closing acryl top.
The real design work started when Saab knew that this type had the possibility to be sold and that was 1960. Several changes were done on the behalf of  The Royal Flight Board (KFF). It is hard to please the KFF who has the money. 1963 a new stronger engine was chosen. This was done after the first test flight.
Up to now the aircraft had been named Saab 105 but now it was changed to SK-60. The first serial copies were delivered 1965. The Swedish Air Force ordered 140 copies and they were delivered up to 1968. This type was built in totally 190 copies, from these, 40 were an export order to Austria. These 40 were equipped with a far stronger engine from General Electric. The Swedish type has after some updates of the French engines and lastly a changing to a far more modern type of engine, RM15 William-Rolls FJ44. Now the trainer is expected to do service up to 2015.


Page 7
 

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Gloster Meteor

 

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Gloster Meteor

Article of Gloster Meteor





 

Gloster Meteor at Svedino. Ref 1
This airplane was bought by Swedish Air support. It was eventually used as target aircraft. and was rebuild to be a two seater.
Part of the wing through the air intake. Ref 1Also England had before the WWII started to design jet engines. An air force officer Frank Whittle had already 1929 ideas about a jet driven air plane. It was about at the same time when experiments with such a engine in Germany was tested. Though at that time there were no heat-resistant material, all development where low and also in England. Anyway the project group with Whittle got some money to continue with their research. Whittle was a dogged person and started a company in order to hurry up development of his idea. Whittle Unit. There were information that in Germany 1939, they had come so far that a Heinkel prototype plane hade tested with the same kind of engine in the air. Therefore the English Air Ministry ordered a prototype for a jet plane. The project continued on a low level when England had full up with the war and to stop the eventual German invasion 1940, 1941.  The design that was discussed had two engines. This due to that not sufficient power could be get from the engines. In spite of misfortunes 12 prototypes were ordered and the project was named Meteor. The very first had only one engine and was called G40. This one did not fly until 1943. It showed a top speed of only 550 km/h. This was much less than corresponding propeller plane on duty. The engine was now developed at Whittle and gave at last a top speed of 750 km/h. Now it was beginning to be serious with development and Rolls Royce was involved while production was laid on Rover factories. Though Rover was not the right place for this and the development almost stopped. Rolls Royce had new ideas and wanted to take over the project. They changed project between each others and Rover got armed production. Now it became a better speed and Rolls designed an engine that gave 10,2 kn traction force. They had now learned how a jet motor should be designed. The development of the air plane had up to now been in the hands of deHavilland. Several more got that task. 1944 the first plane was placed on a wing, which was number 616. There were still insecurities about the ability of this plane and it was not allowed to fly outside the English borders. The main mission was to fight the V1 rockets. The plane had not fuel for more than one hour in the air. Just like the German jetfighter 262. It was equipped with 20 mm Hispano machine guns in the nose. These were unsure and had often disruptions. The first V1 was defeated by wing tipping. Now the first series of Meteors came into production. The war went on so god with the existing material that this new plane never was allowed to get into serious actions. It was restricted for ground attaks and was never involved in dog fighting with the German Messerschmidt 262. One still knew that the engine was a little too weak concerning the German 262. There were no Meteors allowed in the war zone. After the war the development went faster and several different models were produced. This plane became also very popular to sell in countries like Barzil, Denmark, Belgium and Holland. Sweden never bought the reconnaissance model. Instead the last model of Spitfire was bought. This decision may be the right one because of the short flying time for a Meteor. Gloster Meteor was produced up to 1955 in 3924 units and was in service for RAF up to 1970. The unsure flying qualities showed that 450 pilots were killed during it's service.


Page 8

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J34 Hawker Hunter

 

Links

History

J34 in detail
 





 

J34 Hawker Hunter. Ref 1
The Swedish air force was in a trouble because the new aircraft they were waiting for J35 Dragon was several years delayed. To fill this gap they decided to buy from England Hawker Hunter. In Sweden it was named J34. The fighters Sweden had at this time was the left over of J29 Barrel and latest fighter version of Vampire. The progress had a tremendous speed in the world. J28 and J29 were at this time no match for foreign fighters. The cold war became more serious as time went on. Hawker Hunters had been delivered to RAF since 1950, but not to any other country. It was not equipped with radar and after burner. The contacts between Sweden and England were very good and the Air Force ordered 120 aircrafts. Believe it or not but all these were delivered in time. A very unusual happening at that time. J34 was not fully developed when they arrived to Sweden. The canons of the aircraft destroyed the air stream for engines air intake. That made the engine to loose power. Furthermore the empty patrons from the gun had the possibility to enter the air intake. They could destroy the compressor. This was later solved in the way that a container was build for the patrons. The gunpowder gases made the compressor wings dirty. I have not been able to know how they solved this problem unless many question to old mechanics at museums I have visited. Look further A32 Lance. This was of course a military secret of large dimension. Sweden made a trial to build in an after burner, but this project was stopped because the near delivery of A32 Lance. Hawker Hunter was used till 1960 when it was taken away from war organization of Sweden.
Left over aircrafts are to be found at museum in Linköping, Söderhamn and also at Svedino's museum in Ugglarp. There are several private flying Hunters in the world. Most of them bought from the Swiss air force. From these there are at least one in Sweden.


Page 9

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Douglas AD-4W Skyraider

 

Links

Skyraider info

Hos Svensk Flygtjanst

This unit sold to Sweden
 


 

Douglad AD-4W Skyraider. Ref 1

This fighter which is one of the 12 aircrafts that were bought buy Swedish Air Support after 1962. It was on duty up to 1970 and equipped with a two row star engine Wright Cyclone R3350 with 2700 hp. The production ceased 1957 after that 3180 aircraft were built. The type was designed 1944 and flew first time 1945. This was too late for service in WWII, but good for the Korea war. It was well protected for ground enemy fire, but not suitable for dog fights. Instead it was used as dive bomber during it's active duty. During Vietnam war it was used as a Early Warning Plane. This meant that it was equipped with radar and flew high over it's protected object, normally a hangar cruiser.


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Sabre F86 D

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F86 Sabre





 

2 wingless Sabres. Ref 1
Note the picture shows two planes. The wings are dismantled. This type had to fight the MIG 15 in Korea war. This specific model has radar mounted in it's nose. That's why it looks a little different.


Page 11
 

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F104 Starfighter

 

Links

Starfighter

Loockhead F104

Friends of Starfighter





 

Loockhead F104 Starfighter. Ref 1

Info Star Fighter. Ref 1Lockhead Starfighter was designed in the early time when new constructions could be connected to a certain person.

This was a relation that was not possibly later, when aircrafts became so complicated that only large teams with many special areas of knowledge.

J. C. Kendall who worked in the special part at Lockhead called "Skunk Works" got the task make a plane according to the USAAF pilots wishes, after many complaints against the Sabre Jets. The cause was that North side in Korean War had the Russian plane Mig 15. He went to Korea to gather opinions how a fighter should be designed. The first demand was fast and make a quick altitude. All this depend on a engine strong enough.

General Electric was working on one named J79. The Starfighter became the most modern aircraft in the 50th. Due to demand for Supersonic speed which mean double sound speed. The small wings gave problem with high landing speed.

This was solved in a bright way. Some air pressure from engine compressor was led to the ailerons rear end of the wing and in this way made a lower landing speed possible. This type was on service in Vietnam although not for dog fights. It was sold to many countries  like Norway and Denmark. It was hard to control in air and many accidents happened, deadly for the pilot. One cause was that the rescue rocket chair was shot downwards. This made that many low flying accidents became deadly for the pilot. This was later change when a rescue chair could be shot over the tail fin.

It was out of service 1958, but was used in other countries up to 2004, especially Italy. Four planes are in private ownership. Totally from different producers 2387 planes were built. For ex Fiat, Fokker, Messerschmidt, and Mitsubishi.


Links to other interesting sites
Duxford Air Force Museum Brookland Museum
Sinsheim aoroplane  Robot museum Sweden Soderhams Air Museum Malkmkoping vehicle museum
Hassleholm vehicle museum Thulin room Landskrona Svedino Air Museum  Swedish submarines  Malmo Technical, sub

Pictgures from the following owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the necessary permission:   
Reference 1: ©Björn Bellander   bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 11: © Goleta Air & Space Museum Brian Lockett

Reference 12: © Roy Fröjdh
Website handle Svedino Air museum part.
Cover 11 pages.

© Björn Bellander 2006-