Entré ticket. Ref 1 Sparreholm car museum
Text and picture Björn Bellander Pictures current 2009
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since 060110
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2017-03-25
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Peugeot "BeBe"  Stanley Steamer  Hotchkiss  Bentley  Mercedes  Cadillac  Horch  Rolls Royce  Thulin  Lincoln  Hertel  Sizaire-Frêres  Bantam  Rosengart  Austin Seven  Regal  BMW 328  Buick 10  Wolseley-Siddely
Only the most interesting cars are described in this website.
See also Sparreholm Gallery

Some information about the outstanding car museum which has been created at Sparreholm Castle. From the beginning Helge Karinen living in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, collected cars and other technical things. With his partner he took over a school in Svanefors where a car museum was built up. Helge earned a fortune on his inventions and created an investment company, Karolin Invest, after his partner Birger Lundberg had died. He worked after the principle to by companies with good ideas and lack of money. He developed this and could then sell with good profit. Two invention ideas like the backloader and the four wheel controlled truck gave his start. 1995 he sold his company Karolin Invest to Investment Company Atle. Here he became one of the main owners. Of course he got lots of money. Money had to be invested.  The Sparreholm Castle had during many years been owned by money weak owners, was for sale. When Helge retired the castle was bought 1997. His car museum from Skellefteå was moved to a renovated side building on the castle area 1998. In the same time the Sparreholm Company was changed and all means was moved. Anna Karinen took over the leadership for all activities. Now you can find a car museum, old cycles and mc:s, wagons and a stable for horses, one Café and old time music boxes. All these depends of the collections Helge earlier has done. 2014, at my visit the old man Helge took part in the museum showing and was active talking with the visitors. A good advice is to visit this car museum as the collection easily can be sold for other projects when father Helge no longer can control the activities. for pictures and links see Swedish version. At my visit 2015 the exhibition hall now hold to many cars and it is nor area enough to study them.

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Swedish version

Peugeot "BeBe"

Info about Peugeot. Ref 1

Peugeot "BeBe". Ref 1

Peugeot "BeBe". Ref 1

Peugeot "BeBe" from former Laganland car museum. Ref 1

Links

Bugatti

Peugeot BeBe

BeBe Type 69

Peugeot Fan Club

BeBe History





 

Peugeot in Sparreholm. Ref 1

Ettore Bugatti 1881 – 1947

Ettore was born in Milan Italy. His father Carlo was a acknowledged sculptor artist and didn't die until 1940. Ettore had a younger brother who died 1916. Both brothers had inherit their father's artistic gifts. Ettore was although already at 14 years of age turned to the mechanical, when he bought a tricycle 1895. At age of 19 he got work at a tricycle factory and as a cause of this he made improvements and success in competitions. This showed that his constructions were of good quality. He started to sell his own designs as options.
Gullineli (1900) financed a construction for a 4-cyl car. Ettore got medal for this at the Milano Car Fair 1901.
Baron DeDietrich who for a long time had searched for a project to his factory in Niederbronn, signed a contract with Ettore who moved there.
During 3 years Ettore made a base model. 4 cyl chain drive. It was sold as DeDietrich-Bugatti. But it was not a financial success. Ettore joined instead with Mathis, who was an old friend. In this way Ettore came to Strasbourg. (1904) In the 20:th Mathis car was popular in Sweden. It had a 4 cyl. engine (follower of Bugattis 4 cyl), from the beginning of 1900. Mahtis made a small 3 wheel car 1947. You can see it in Allers Bilparad no. 80. 1906 they ended the cooperation and Ettore moved to Deutz in Köln. Here he produced 2 models. Apparently he was not satisfied with his works situation. He built a car of his own 1908, in the basement where he lived during his free time. It was called type 10 and is now owned by a private collector in USA. With this car in his box Ettore was connected to Peugeot and there the BeBe was produced.

Type10 Later the Peugeot "BeBe". Ref. 2Mathis 1947. From Allers paper in Sweden.Gulinelli. Ref 2
 


Deutz. Ref. 2DeDietrich. Ref. 2


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Swedish version

Stanley Steamer

Stanley Steamer 1921. Ref 1

Links

Stanley Steamer car


Stanley
 Museum

Technical photoes


Other producers

Saab steam engine





 


 
Stanley Steamer Car 1921.
Steam cars were a useful alternative all the time till the self starting motor became a natural option for all petrol cars. One of the most popular mark was Stanley Steamer. There were the brothers Stanley who were working with photo. They were influenced by the times demand and sold there photo company to Eastman Kodak. The car they started to produce was in the beginning not the most sold but the production survived from 1896 to 1924 when they sold their production unit.

Later the steam car production disappeared in economical downs and rivalry from other more cheaper cars with petrol engines. One of the later trials with steam engines was investigated by SAAB during oil crisis 1977. They developed a steam part big as a battery which should give an estimated effect of 160 hp. Among the links you can find an informative video which starts with a short add.

This car is no longer on display at Sparreholm 2014.


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Swedish version

Hotchkiss 686

Drivers place in a  Hotchkiss 686. Ref 1

Hotchkissfrom behind. Ref 1

Info Hotchkiss. Ref 1

Hotchkiss. Copy from Early American motors. Ref 37

Hotchkiss Gregoir 1952. Acc to mail.

Hotchkiss Anjou 1950. Acc to mail.



Links

Benjamin Hotchkiss

Hotchkiss cars

Hotchkiss cars pics

Hotchkiss drive

Hotchkiss Heavy Industries

Early American Autos


 
Hotchkiss 686 1937
Benjamin Berkeley Hotckhiss 1826-1885 was born in Connecticut USA. He was employed at Colt Factories working with pistols and the famous Winchester rifle.


After the American Civil war it was no longer any profit with pistols and other sorts of weapons. Businessmen have a good feeling how to earn money on their knowledge. The place was in Europe where they started to store weapons for the coming French-German war 1870-71. He moved to France 1867 and started an ammunition factory in Paris. He also constructed the coming machine weapon. It was of the rotating canon type. It was produced in large quantities and was used everywhere during WWI. With this he created a big fortune and this money was later used to produce cars. In these cars he also used another invention from his Hotchkiss factory. This got big use when car production increased and it was the type of fastening the rear axle, where the half elliptical spring system took care of the moment of inertia caused by the driving force on the rear wheels. This is a construction which is so normal today that one can wonder why is is worth a patent. It was called Hotchkiss drive.
Car production started 1903 and continued up to 1955. When new times after WWII killed the most weak small car producers.
Hotchkiss started before WWI to produce components for the growing car industry. In first place Panhard and deDion. France was the leading car producer in Europe. Selling of component led of course that he thought he could earn more money by producing cars himself.
In order to get a quick start he bought one of the very expensive Mercedes Simplex cars. These were developed with the new style with front engine, steering with a wheel, pedals for brakes, clutch and speed.
Read about the Simplex car which was not saleable and it's story. Hotchkiss first car was very much alike the Simplex. It had ball bearings for both crankshaft and camshaft. This made that Hotchkiss got a reputation to be a luxurious car with a high quality. He earned much money when money was pouring in because of the near outbreak of WWI. When the Germen got near Paris where the factory was situated Hotchkiss became alarmed that Paris should be captured. Therefore he opened a factory in England and here he also produced weapons. It was easy to sell. There was big plans that the whole Paris factory had to be moved. Although there was no time for this and happily the Germen didn't come so far. They could though disturb the production with their long shooting guns.
In Coventry factory Hotchkiss started with the small types of cars for that time and started a cooperation with Morris as they produced their engines. They also worked on a new 2 cyl. V engine. This was aimed to be sold to the new BSA 3 wheeler. Austin Seven also partly got engines from Hotchkiss. After war car production started again and with war money they could buy smaller car producers like Amilcar and others. Hotchkiss also made a sport model which won Monte Carlo rally no less than 6 times. The last was 1950. During WWII cars production had ceased and the factory became a reparation place for German military vehicles, just like Citroën and Peugeot were. After the war the mark Gregoire was bought and a new modern car with the name Hotchkiss-Gregoire was created. The last connection became with Delahaye. Now the buying customers were so few that all civil car production was laid down 1955 and instead Hotchkiss started to produce the American war Jeep. For this they bought a license and change the name to Hotchkiss Brandt. This went on up to 1966 when Thomson Houston took over to deliver military lorries to 1967 and thereafter civil lorries to 1971. No longer on display 2014.


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Bentley

Info Bentley 3 l. Ref 1

Bentley from behind. Ref 1

Bentley driver's place. Ref 1

Photo from my visit at Köping museum 2001 from Krüger's Bentley på Köping museum. Ref 1

Bentley 8 litre at Bugatti museum. Ref. 1

Links

Bentley

Bentley story

Bentley Race story

 

Bentley 3 liters. Ref 1
 
Bentley 3 litres 1924.

Walter Owen Bentley established Bentley Motors Ltd. 1920. The mark paid a large attention after several win in the famous 24 hour race at Le Mans in France.
The competition was to drive most laps during 24 hours. 1931 Bentley was bought by Rolls Royce because of financial problems. This was due to their production of 100 copies of Speed Six. When BMW 1998 bought Rolls Royce was not the name Bentley included. It was instead bought by Volkswagen. This main car was renovated by Richard C Moss 1989 -1990.

The Bentley at Kopings museum is Torsten Krüger's (don't mix with Ivar Krüger) Bentley 1930. This car came to Technical museum in Stockholm after his dead. It was on display and gathered dust and the museum was apparently not so interested in this big car with an 6 cyl engine and 8 litres volume. The car was capable of 160 km/h. This was a speed that Rolls Royce had difficulties to reach. As this model was presented just when the depression struck only 100 copies were sold before Bentley ceased their production 1931. Most of these cars had the chariot of the small picture. Long engine hood, a low windshield. This was the criteria for a luxurious car with a strong layout.

The car is now on display at car museum in Köping. They are not willing to put money in this car. New a buyer had to pay almost 2000£ and on auctions 2009 the bid is up to $900000. Torsten Krüger also owned a Duesenberg which later was bought by Martin Strömberg in Hedemora. Read about that.
Bentley at VW Autostadt. Ref 1










Bentley 3,7 liter 1937 at Autostadt museum
According to their victories at LeMans Bentley had a high respected name. 1931 RollsRoyce bought Bentley for 125575 £. VW bought Bugatti and Bentley 1965. This Bentley with custom body was ordered by Sir Roy Fedder. He was a designer at Bristol Motors. The chasie was produced in 1177 ex.


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Mercedes

Mercedes Cab 290A. Ref 1

Mercedes 290A Sedd bakifrån. Ref 1

Info Mercedes 290A. Ref 1

Mercedes 130 H. Ref 1

Info Mercedes 130H. Ref 1

Special Roadster 1937 Mercedes Museum. Ref 1

Special Roadster  Aalholms Museum Danmark. Ref 1

Links

Mercedes 540K


Mercedes 540K Pictures

Autobahn Kurier

Mercedes 500K. Ref 1
 

Mercedes Benz 540 K Special Roadster 1938.
This Mercedes model is princip worth all money in the world. Only 25 cars were built and 5 are still known to exist. Yet you should know that different models was sold with this type of body. Bodies with straight door and spare wheel in different places, hard top, fixed head coupe, and Maharadja style, so it is uncertain what Mercedes museum mean with  the 25. The model could be ordered from 1936. Sure is that the car you can see at Mercedes and Sinsheim museums are one of them. One model with straight doors are to be found at RossoBianco-museum. A Maharadja type is shown at Bugatti-museum in Mohlsheim. I have also seen one at Åhlholms museum in Denmark, but this museum is closed 2012.
The backseat lid can be opened for another 2 seats. Another site showing "Mighty Mercedes" is C.F.Mirbach Historical Cars.
Mercedes Benz 540K Special Roadster 1937
Gosh. You may say what you like about other more or less nice luxury bodies. No one beats Mercedes 540 K Special. A really show stopper. Straight 8 cylinder engine, 5400 cc, with manual connection of compressor (through accelerator). It was only allowed to work for a few minutes. You could also order hard top as option. More about Mercedes see Mercedes
museum. Prize not possible to pay.
Special Roadster Bianco Rosso Museum. Ref 1
The model first came 1936. Anyway the car which are on display at different museums are left. The rear opening had place for two seats.

The engine show 5400 cc and 8 cyl, and gave 115 ps without and 180 with compressor.
It's maximum speed was 170 km/h. Up to 1938 there was 4 gears and then 5. It is uncertain if any 5 gear car was delivered before the war.
NB. According to the book Mighty Mercedes it was only the first samples that were equipped without side windows and hollow doors. It was then equipped with straight doors and side windows.
This car can be found at Sinsheim museum. (Ref. 4)

"Maharadja Delight" Special Roadster from India. Ref 1

Mercedes-Benz 130H 1934-38
In the beginning av 1930 Mercedes started to search new ways.

Primary this was due to the development of engineering plants about press machines. Porsche was one constructor who had made several different car models for famous car factories like Steyr, Tatra, NSU, Zündapp and the beginning of  Volkswagen. This was done in his small office. Porsche was engaged several times at Mercedes Benz. For this rear mounted engine car is Hans Nibel a well known name. Edmund Rumpler had a curious rear engine car known as Tropfen-Auto. Mercedes Benz also used this name for a racing car with a small change to Tropfen wagen.
The car was equipped with different types of 4 cyl 1300cc, 1500cc and 1700cc engines.


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Cadillac

Info Cadillac 452. Ref 1

Gustaf V:s chaufför körde lätt av vägen i den senare till Kungens kurva döpta vägen. Ref 1

Info om Kungens Cadillac 1939. Ref 1

Engine for  Cad 452.  Ref 1

Info om Cadillac. Ref 1

Cadillacs V16 sign. Ref 1

Cadillac V16 på Haynes museum. Ref 1

Info Cadillac 1927. Ref 1


 
Cadillac 452A 1930

Trying to dig info about Cadillac there is a must to first decide what to dig about. General about history, general development or engines. After much searching it became about engines as most websites talk about this subject and specially about the V16.
1970 Cadillac decided to bore the 472 engine to 500 cc (8.2 liter) engine just because Lincoln had announced an engine with 7.7 liter, just to get the biggest engine. In the 1930th it was due to that Marmon and Peerless was on the way to build a V16. Cadillac started to build together two straight 8 engines with a single crankshaft and one camshaft in the middle with pushrods and standing valves. One new invention were the hydraulic tappets. This was chosen to get a silent engine. Advertising said that a 16 cyl engine is very smooth running, but this is not true for 16 cyl. The reality for a good balanced engine should have 12 or 18 cylinders. The mathematical problem to count the counterweights must have been quite a challenge for the Cadillac engineers.
In the beginning it was quite easy to sell such an expensive car 1930. The first 7 month 2000 cars were sold. All these were offered with body according to 
catalogue and customer wish. These were built by Fisher or Fleetwood. The 2 coach work companies were earlier bought by Cadillac just to get them inside Cadillac walls. Empty chassis were offered but only small sales. Same time the same bodies were sold with V12 engines and a few with straight 8:s.


Cadillac 1916
Cadillac 1916. Ref 1
The V16 car was sold at a loss and they tried to make the engine cheaper. The engine was rebuild to a 135° V and side valves, but rated the same 185 hp. This engine became much simpler and cheaper. These heads were called L-Head. The engine was named 90 and came 1938 to 1940. The engine became much broader  but the bodies had changed design and there was no problem with space. The last V16 car was delivered 1940 to a buyer in Germany. America had not yet entered the war.
After the first 2000 cars it took 10 years to sell another 2000 units. This car, the V16, is one of the most asked for. 
The V16 car was sold at a loss so they tried to change the engine to more cheaper one doing it into a L-head side valve an a 135° instead former 45°. The engine became in this way much broader. The chariots were though change to take this so there was no problem with space. The last V16 came 1940. America had not yet entered the war. It took 10 years to sell 4000 cars. This type from 1930 is one of the most sought after luxury cars on the market.


Cadillac V16 in Sweden.
One V16 at the museum in Sparreholm. It was ordered by Torsten Krüger (not Ivar Krüger who committed suicide in Paris). Torsten got 1 years in prison because of an economical swindle 1933 and the car was sold to publisher Pettersson in Malmö and then to Helge Kaarinen, owner of Sparreholm Castle and car museum, now living i London. This car is original and never renovated. Another two 452B 1931 and 1932 are owned by Anders Läck in Sweden.



Cadillac 1927

Cadillac 1927. Ref 1

Links
Cadillac V16  Cadillac V16 engine  Cadillac 452 V16  Cadillac V16 1930 Cadillac 1916 Typ 53  Cadillac 1927 Historia bilder  Cadillac Historia Bilder 1939


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Horch

Info Horch. Ref 1

Horch raka 8 cylinders motor. Ref 1

Horch 853A 1936.Karosseri Erdmann & Rossi på Audi museet. Ref 1

Horch 853A 1932 på Audi museet. Ref 1

Links

Audi museum

Erdman & Rossi

Sinsheim Horch collection

Volkswagen museum

RM Auction history

Horch på Sparreholms museum. Ref 1
Horch 856
 
Med 4.9 l motor, 8 cyl., 120 hk 3600 rpm, 135 km/tim kostade denna imponerande kabriolet 15250 RM (Reichmark) 1935. An enormous sum for this time.

With this car Horch fought their rival Mercedes 500/540K. They were also bitter enemies on the racing tracks. This car is equipped with a straight 8 engine and 120 hp. The body was built by Erdman & Rossi in Berlin. The buyer had to pay almost 30000 Reichsmark which was a fortune at that time.
Only 5(6) were built and this i 1 of 3 survivors. From the 830 concept was almost 400 built. Several were used by high ranked officers who demanded to have a car according to their rang.


Price, 2008 if you find one £1.127.500. You can find another one at Riga museum.
In the beginning of 850 models Horch delivered even V12 engines, normally an straight eight, and price was 23500 Reichsmark and delivered 1932. In my own opinion I found this much cooler than the Erdman & Rossi car. I don't know the exact model name but 58 units were made. Both these car were put inside a glass cage. I am sure they didn't want people to com to close. Compare the design of connection between front and rear fender with Jean Bugatti design of the first Royale.


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Rolls Royce



Info Rolls Royce 1926. Ref 1

Info Rolls Royce at the museum. Ref 1

Info Rolls Royce at the museum. Ref 1

Rolls Royce på museet. Ref 1
Rolls Royce
 
Two men and their knowledge and proficiency in life were met by a coincidence without even knowing about each other.
Henry Edmunds had invited them to Midlands Hotel on the 4th of May 1904. One of them with the name Henry Royce, a skilled engineer and Charles Rolls, a reseller of cars. Sir Henry Royce had built a Ser Henry Royce, Photo from Wikipedia.car already 1902, Royce 10. He had the opinion that a good product could be made better special on the engine side. His car was equipped with a 2 cylinder engine. Charles Rolls had imported mostly French cars as other countries seldom exported their cars. He was an adventurer and Charles Royce. Photo from Wikipedia.this
 reputation was put on a man like Rolls as he was both adventurer, a pilot and race driver. He wasn't specially sufficient with the cars quality. Royce had proved the quality of his cars by controlling them with controlled tests. At this meeting they agreed to each other that Rolls should sell all cars Royce could produce. This became the agreement, but it was not written until December that year.
Sir Henry Royce was except a car builder even an inventor.
One of his patents at this time was the light bulb for cars. It was formed with bayonet type. Car lamps are produced that way even today.

Charles Rolls was an educated mechanic at Cambridge. He studied here for engineer. He was one of the first to prove for car license and airplane license.

During the period between WWI and WWII. They developed airplane engines and also succeeded to make the best and strongest types. This engine was called the R-engine and it's output was about 810 hp. Later it became the famous Merlin engine with output of more than 2250 ps. The problem was that England had no suitable airplane in which this engine could be used. In Germany it was just the opposite. Heinkel had built a plane which was called Heinkel Blitz. Rolls Royce wanted to buy such a plane in order to win the Schneider trophy for England. The plan between Heinkel and Rolls Royce. Was to make a switch. Rolls Royce accepted, but the German RLM (Reichluft ministerium) didn't agree. Instead England got a license for one plane and Germany got one engine. How this ended, Heinkel doesn't tell in his book Stormy life.

Cycel made by Rolls displayed at Technical museum Hälsingborg. Ref 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

At my visit in Helsingborg technical museum I saw a cycle made and named by Rolls.


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Thulin A20

Info at Sparreholms museum. Ref 1

Technical museum Malmö. Ref 1

Svedino museum  Ugglarp. Ref 1

Technical museum Stockholm. Ref 1

Thulinrummet in Landskrona. Ref 1

Picture from the bankrupt papers for SAF. Picture shows the car type which was sold. Ref 1

Links

Thulinverken

Thulin at Sparreholm museum. Ref 1
 
Haldexbilen (not the car on picture)
This car came is in the the ownership of Haldex through the following story. Bo Andersson who ownes some parts for a Thulin motorcycle was on a tour in north of Sweden stopped at Torsongs museum in the landscape of Dalarna south and near the city of Borlänge, in order to ask for motorcycle parts for his Thulin mc. The Torsång owner had been interested for old motor vehicles for a long time. If there were any parts he should know. He didn't know of any MC parts but there was a Thulin car type A (picture from veteran car magazine Signalhornet) in the north of Sweden for sale. Bo took this information back to Haldex Company and they at last succeeded to buy this car. As you can see on pictures it was thoroughly renovated and is now in a good stand. Haldex has also built a special trailer in order to be able to take the car to markets and meetings.
The investments that Thulinverken or Teve as it was called for a time after bankruptcy was the beginning of bad solvency because of expensive production tools in order to produce the cars. The bankruptcy estates did continue the production up to 1927 when Volvo started to deliver their first, car popular named Jakob. This was the final end.
The car type was bought to Thulinverken through Gustaf Daléns subsidiary AGA company outside Berlin. The name AGA in this case had nothing to do with Swedish AGA production.. The German Works had bought the car construction from FN in Belgium. Most of the parts for the car was produced in Sweden except carburetor and electrical equipment which were imported.

Thulinverken had also a contract with a reseller for 1000 cars, of these only 300 were produced. The car got a coach work made of wood. It was Palle Mellblom who led this work in the beginning. He had knowledge from the airplane production. The car was for sale with a coach according to the customer wish. Different coach works offered can be seen here. The engine had a motor block casted including the gearbox. During WWI the AGA factory had a main production of machine guns and it was when this production ended that the FN-car was bought. About 15000 AGA cars where produced before the factory ceased. Picture of an AGA car was found in Finland and renovated by enthusiast, now placed for ever at Dahlen museum Stenstorp.

Motorcycles.

These two pictures, with necessary permission, scanned from the book Swedish motorcycle history by Gert Ekström.
They were constructed by Thulin's friend Thord Ångström and were ready on the drawing board already 1919 and for delivery 1920. 1923 the small one with 350cc engine. The earlier had a 1000cc and 570cc. Probably any remaining MC is not not to be found as only 12 were produced.

MCIII with "Douglasengine" 1000 cc. Ref 33.

MCII 350 cc. Ref 33

Original AGA car at Dahlénmuseum in Stenstorp. Ref 1Haldexcar in Landskrona. Ref 34


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Lincoln

Info about Lincoln. Ref 1

Lincoln driver's place 1921. Ref 1

Liberty engine at Duxford museum. Where produced among others by Lincoln. Ref 1

Info about Liberty engine at Duxford museum. Ref 1

Info from Duxford museum. Ref 1

Lincoln 1947-48 at museum of Ullared.  Ref 1

Links
Lincoln history

Mark IV

C E Johansson

C E:s patent

Duxford museum

Lincoln 1922. Ref 1
 
Lincoln 1921

Henry Leland created the Cadillac car 1900. When General Motors took over the Cadillac name 1917 Leland withdraw with all his money.
He wanted to use this money to create a new luxury car. He gave it the name Lincoln. The first car entered the market 1921. The car had several new constructions such as pressure lubrication and removable cylinder heads. The engine was a side valve V8 5.8 litre and had the maximum speed of 100 km/h. This mark was very popular by gangsters of that time. They often ordered trimmed cars. 
President Coolidge hade a special ordered car. But Henry Leland was not able to generate money from the factory.

He had economical problems already 1922. During his time with Cadillac he cooperated with Ford. When Lincoln was for sale Henry Ford took over the Lincoln factory and name. Henry did this doing it as a bold stroke when the factory was auctioned. Henry Ford had planned to produce a luxury car to compete with Cadillac. Henry Leland and his son was allowed to continue with Lincoln but Leland could not agreed with the hard hands of Ford. and months later was Lelands family was out.

A Swedish inventor is deeply involved in the production of the first Cadillac, Ford and the entire American military industry.
Henry Leland realized already at that time when he was working with Ford and Cadillac. Producing spare parts was a hard chapter to get the part able to be fully changeable

In order to solve this he started to produce part with the help of C.E Johansson's patent.

This was proven at the Brookland circuit. Three Cadillac cars were moved there and totally reassembled, mixed ad put together again. These three cars were then driven for many laps. Now it was proved that it was possibly to produce parts with sufficient precision. This was possible by using the Swedish inventor C. E. Johansson patent. He had opened a resell firm in USA. He got the patent already 1901 and selling was started 1907.

It became an immediate success. Anyway he had to sell his company to Henry Ford after WWI. Henry  realized  that this patent was necessary to produce spare parts. Although Johansson was fully detached at Ford Factory. When creating Cadillac Ford owned the creation of Cadillac and here the patent had been tested already 1907.

Leland opened his new firm 1917 after that GM with Durant had taken over Cadillac. The goal of Leland was to take over the production of the Liberty engine which was needed for WWI. For this Johansson's set of gauge blocks had to be used. Henry Ford didn't start to use the patent until 1910 and 1914 it was used for the entire production line at Ford factory.

Well known is the quotation from Henry Leland "There are only two men I lift my hat for, the President of United States and Mr Johansson from Sweden".
It was also C E Johansson who introduced the overarching measure for 1 " to 25,400 mm.


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Hertel

Info from museum. Ref 1

Info from museum. Ref 1

Carburator system. Ref 1

Sales paper for Hertel. Ref 36

Photograph courtesy of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Memorial Hall Museum, Deerfield, Massachusetts
Picture from Royal Feltner Early Motor Cars. Ref 37

Hertel 1899. Ref 1
Hertel 1899

This coach work can easy be transformed to Benz first 3 wheeler. Just move one front wheel to the middle and take away the other. Add a central steering handle.
Why this? Max Hertel had moved to Chicago after his cooperation with Carl Benz when they built the first car. Hertel had been classmate with Benz. Hertel was testing gas engines (like Benz) on the road around Chicago 1985. Same year he had announced to take part in a car competition outside the town. It became a failure when the car got mechanical troubles. Mr. Oakman wanted to start up a car business and engaged Max Hertel the same year. 1898 Oakman-Hertel started their cars and sales in Greenfield. The first car was on display at New York cycle show 1899. In this way the Hertel make of car was born and sold for $750. This was though 4 times more than was paid for an early T-Ford. Only 12 Hertels were produced. Today there are only three left. One in Australia, one in America (Alaska see link) and this one in Sweden. The car which is in America was found for many years by John Leather in a garage and was bought by the famous collector D. Cameron Peck. The car was renovated according the coach work.
The engine was in good stand. The type was a standing 2 cylinder gas type.

Oakman Motors which produced this early car got economical problems 1900 and the production ceased. Hertel moved back to France and there his car was named Impetus. This is the end of Max Hertel story. He has anyway a relative left in America, A Hertel. On the last auction 2009 a Hertel was paid $56 500.

About the construction I remember that my brother build a cycle car in end of 1940. It's front end was principle a copy of this Hertel. It's main problem was that in curves steering forces on the wheels became so big that the pokes of cycle wheels couldn't stand the forces. This because the wheels were not leaning. The same thing must have happened with a Hertel car.

The Hertel which is on Victoria museum in Australia was bought in Chicago my the business man J Pender from Melbourne. He was borne in Canada. At that time the car type was called Buggy. The car arrived to Australia 1897 and got of course a justified excitement as it was the first car in the country. The engine was running on nafta spirit. One time it took fire. Pender donated it to the museum 1914. Even Daimler sold a car 1893 equipped with a front like Hertel.

Early American Autos   Oakman auction  Sience museum Australien
Memorial Hall Museum, Deerfield USA  Hertel You Tube 1  Hertel You Tube 2
Fountainhead Museum Alaska


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Sizaire-Fréres

Info about Sizaire. Ref 1

Engine for Sizaire Frêres. Ref 1

Front spring system in front end. Ref 1

Sizaires-Naudin at Bugattimuseum Mohlsheim. Ref 1


 

Links

Wiki Sizaire

Sizaire



 

Sizaire Frêres 4RI. Ref 1
 
Sizaire-Frêres 4RI
4 cyl 2000 cc SOHC 40 hp max 115 km/h ca 1920-31.
About Sizaire there is no exciting or interesting stories. The production started in France outside Paris 1905.
The car was the first in the world which had individual spring system on all wheels. The front end on this car had an updated system from the first car Naudin with a cross over spring. See picture. This was built in on all wheels. Studebaker 1947 had this construction for the front end. The spring packet carried also the lower slewing bracket just like in the picture. They used different engines like Minerva, Hotchkiss or Willys Knight. The economical crises in the beginning 1929 made that production ceased.  Maurice Sizaire, the founder had still money left and moved his now small production to Belgium. Possible with the help of surplus parts.

Sizaire Naudin
1 cyl. 918 cc according to the deDions model
The white car had an engine with one cylinder and won many competitions. It's individual front spring system gave the car a large technical advantage. The car was produced between 1905-1921 in different evolution steps.

Maurice Sizaire was the constructor and the builder was Naudin.
The factory baptized their models after the name of the builder. The production had the peculiarity having different factories producing parts and units. In this way there were except Naudin also Berwick and Frêres.
The Naudin car had the main frame made of wood but was popular for it's simplicity and low price. The model continued to be produced with larger engines and coach works. In the end it became a conventional family car. The production ceased shortly after WWI.

Sizaire-Berwick
Maurice left Naudin and started production of a luxury car named Berwick. He also opened a production factory i England. The lines for the cooler was almost a copy of Rolls Royce. They were forced to change it when Rolls Royce made complaints. The factory was taken over by Austin in order to use it for engines made for Austin Twenty and Twelve. In France a 3.2 litres engine was mounted from Lycoming. The English production ceased 1925 and the French around 1927.


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Bantam

Info om Bantam. Ref 1

Links

American Bantam

Bantam 1938-41

Classic Bantam

Jeep Story

More about Jeep


Bantam - Jeep



 





 

Bantam från American Austin/Bantam. Ref 1
Bantam
 
The most copied and widely licensed car was Austin Seven. To tell about Bantam is as telling about the story of Austin Seven.

Herbert Austin was a self taught car enthusiast in the beginning of 1900. This was the time when private studying and working with car constructions could create a successful businessmen and popular cars.
He worked as a constructor at Wolseley. But he thought that he could build a better car from his own ideas. 1905 he started his own production of a car christened to Austin. The type of models he started to sell was ordinary family cars. They had name as Austin Twelve or Twenty. He had also cooperation with Hotchkiss to whom he sold engines. He had no great profits and realized soon that in this type there was not much money. The right type of car was a small one for England.
The taxes was count after how powerful the engine was. Furthermore motor fuel was rather expensive. During the WWI he earned much money. 1922 he used this money to evaluate a small car as Austin Seven. This car was equipped with a 850 cc and a 13 ps engine, two placed and a help seat. The engine hade 4 cylinders and for the time be only 2 bearings. Whole England bought this cheap car model. I am sure most of the use was to make pub rounds in the evenings. In this country this car became the T-Ford for England. Herbert Austin established this model in whole of Europe. Those other car manufactures was
BMW with Dixi and Rosengart and even the American built Seven for Jaguar Swallow. Later came the Danish motorcycle Nimbus with a rebuilt Seven Engine.
Now Herbert looked at the American market.  Here he started a new business with the name American Austin in Butler Pennsylvania. The car sold rather good but could not generate a profit and went bankrupt already 1934. 
A salesman Roy Evans bought the company for a small sum of money. He started production again but depression had the company on it's knee and the stockholder wanted to sell their shares. These were bought by Evans and the company was renamed to American Bantam 1935. Now he had no money left for production. Anyway he succeeded  to get a money loan for 250 millions made a reconstruction and renamed the company to American Bantam.  The famous racing car producer Harry Miller and Alexix de Sakhnoffsky. This car started to sell 1938 and sold rather many although with a $75 loss for every car. The war WWII was on the way and 1942 only 100 cars were delivered and the production ceased. The American army had asked for a small reconnaissance car. The test car was build from main parts of Bantam. This car should be the famous Jeep. Evans got of course large license money even if it was trouble with ownership of the construction. Evans sold his company Bantam 1946, but this is another story.


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Rosengart

Info about Rosengart. Ref 1

Rosengart LR4 1928.Picture from Wikipedia.

Rosengart LR2. Picture from Wikipedia.

Rosengart Cab 1930. Picture from Wikipedia.

Rosengart LR4n. Picture from Wikipedia.

Links
Rosengart 1
BMW Classic Rosengart
Lucien Rosengart
Motorbase
Rosengart pictures

Rosengart. Ref 1
 
Rosengart 1930

In Paris 1903 there was a 12 year boy. He was running to his work as a mechanic every day. He developed his knowledge with this up to his 24th birthday.

At that time he owned his own workshop and owned  several patens. A clever man could work his way to earn large mechanical knowledge. Lucien Rosengart was the name who had specialized in railway parts, cycles and in connection with WWI a rocket which was able to explode before it hit the ground. For this he was a very coveted person. These rockets where produced at Citroên factory where he was employed. Lucien developed his talents and as such a person he saved both Citroën and Peugeot from bankruptcy.
As a distinguished person with these large factories he of course earned much money and as having money he would like use it for his highest ideas. This was of course to build his own car. Jules Salomon who had constructed the first model of Citroên. Rosengart had met this man during his early times at Citroën. They became a perfect couple with Lucien's money to start a new car factory.
For this purpose he bought a closed down factory building outside Paris. As being a business man he of course had made a market research and had found out that a small car was what people would buy. This was naturally something which could be profitable.

1927 it was mostly motorcycles with side car which was the small vehicle. In such things people moved themselves. In order to begin with a small car a license was bought and this was the popular Austin Seven. Rosengart first model was called LR2 (Lucien Rosengart 2) was delivered 1928.  This type of car was produced up to WWII, in spite of it was totally out of date.

During WWII the car production stopped and the factory was taken over by the Nazis. Probably they were sub producer for their war production. Lucien had gone to America but returned at the end to start up the production for a small car. But now it was new demands and small cars didn't sell good enough because all other producer of cars did just the same. Anyway Rosengart offered new models like LR2, Super Traction and others. The last models became Ariette and Sagaie 1954 and 55. These were sold only in few copies before factory was closed.
May be Lucien Rosengart lived rest of his life by selling spare parts.


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Austin Seven Ulster

Info omAbout Austin Ulster. Ref 1

Austin Seven at  Rydaholms museum. Ref 1

Dixi/Austin Seven at BMW museum München. Ref 1

Links

Austin Seven

Austin Seven barn find

Ulster replica

Rydaholm museum

 



 

 

Austin Seven Ulster. Ref 1
Austin Seven Ulster
 
The history about Ulster is just like to tell about Herbert Austin and his work with Austin Seven as the base.

The car type that has been widely spread and copied is Austin Seven. Herbert Austin was a self taught car enthusiast in the beginning of early 1900. In this time a quick person could learn by private work and studies to work with car constructions. In this way one could learn to create successful cars.
Herbert Austin worked with tools at Wolseley. He thought he had better ideas for a car. 1905 he started his own making of a car called Austin. Those car types he made in the beginning was ordinary family cars. They were called Austin Twelve and twenty. He had also cooperation with Hotchkiss to whom he sold engines. He didn't made profit enough and realized that a small car was the right one for England.
A car was taxed after it's engine power. The motor fuel was also expensive. During the WWI he earned much money. 
He used it 1922 to develop a car which would suit English people. It became an Austin Seven. This car had an engine with 850 cc and 13 ps, two seats and an extra seat in the rear. Engine had 4 cylinders and only 2 main bearings in the beginning. Whole England bought this car model. I am sure they mostly used it to go for pub rounds. Herbert Austin established this car in the whole of Europe.
Those car producers that bought licenses  in order to make copies was BMW-Dixi, Rosengart, the Danish, the Japanese Datsun, MC Nimbus and even the American Bantam. From Bantam it became later Jaguar Swallow. Totally 375000 Seven were built.
Now Herbert looked with interest  on the export market  in America. Here he started the firm American Austin in Butler Pennsylvania. 
Back home in England the small Seven sold so good that many small special car builder started with a Austin and many of them became small car producers. As Lotus with mainly the Lotus Seven and other sport cars.
Austin Seven became later the main idea for the small Mini.


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Regal

Info about Regal. Ref 1

Regal. Ref 1

Links

Lacoste et Bettmann

Lacoste et Bettmann 2

 


 

Regal/Lacoste et Bennette. Ref 1
 
Regal 1905
The firm Lacoste et Bettmann in Paris sold this kind of car 1899 up to 1905. Every car was a special order from a private customer. They got different names like Napoleon, Gamage and Speedwell and so on. They also sold coach works and chassis. One was for an engine producer Jackson. Some cars with this mark were sold. After 1905 a few cars came with the name Lacoste. Some cars were delivered with a four cylinder engine. The firm had also a sale office in England. All these cars with engines from DeDion, Aster or Mutel.
The car frame was mainly build from steel pipes but in England there were also cars with a wooden frame. There were also many different cars with all sorts of engines, coach works and frames. Because of this it is almost impossible to find out the origin. The cars were well build, this can be understood because many cars have survived up to our days.
Robert Craig Hupp had once worked with Regal cars in USA and Canada 1908. These had nothing to do with Regal France


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BMW 328

Drivers place for BMW 328. Ref 1

BMW 328 at museum München. Ref 1




Links

BMW museum



 


 


 
BMW 328 was the prestige sport car. It was announced 1936 and got great confidence. It had an engine with high positioned camshaft and spherical compression rooms. The valves were operated by push rods in two stages. First from camshaft to inlet  valve and then over to the other valve by a horizontal push rod. Between the valves there were 3 carburetors placed.
It was for this time a qualified design which gave the 328 an advantage on the race tracks. Simpler models for daily use were also produced named BMW 326 and 327. In Sweden had among others the Captain of Swedish Air Force Björn Atterberg one 328 which he competed with.


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Buick 10

Info om Buick 10. Ref 1


Buick 10 på Sparreholms museum. Ref 1

Buick 10. Ref 1

Buick 10 4 cyl engine. Ref. 1

Links

Buick Century

Buick History


Ullared museum
 

Buick 10. Ref. 1

Buick 10
Buick Motor Company has a long story and can be referred back to 1890. Engines were sold to the farmers around. The man behind the name was David Buick. His company changed name several times before Buick Motor Company got it's present name. David was born in Scotland 1854 and moved to Detroit 1880. He was a clever engineer and work within plumbing. He invented how to protect pipes with china cover. He sold this to be able to start up car production and was tremendous eager to replace horses with an engine. He was already producing engines as he had sold them to farmers already 1890. He started carefully but he had not sufficient with money and was forced to sell his business to his economical backups such as Benjamin Briscoe and the banks. The new owners started to move the factory to the former locals of Flint Wagons. David had a new model ready and it was tested by David's son Thomas. In the same time the banks and his boarder forced him to get the best businessman to take over the lead. William Durant. This man owned a patent for a spring system for horse wagons. He was very impressed of the system of Buick springs and accepted the lead offer at once. Durant took the first car to New York Auto Show 1905 and took the lead himself in the exhibition case. Then he returned to Flint Works with several orders. 1908 Buick produced 8820 car under the Durant's lead. Buick became the largest car producer in America this year. Durant then created the holding company which later should be General Motors. David Buick became just a spectator and could only see how Buick grew to a large car factory and died miserably poor.


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Wolseley-Siddely

Info Wolseley-Siddely. Ref 1

This sign shows that car is member of Norwegian Veteran Club. Ref 1

Links

Wolseley 1906

Léon Bollée

Wolseley Motor Co

 





 

Wolseley Siddely. Ref 1

Wolseley Siddely
Herbert Austin started his business as a mechanics at Wolseley works. Here he had the feeling that he could build a better car 1896. He had bought a 3 wheeler from Paris a Léon Bollés. This car had an engine which run on gas. He reconstructed this car. At this time he was one of the owners in Wolseley. The first rebuild became not a good product. The second updated car came later with 4 wheels and 3.5 ps. It made a good job in the 1000 miles trial test which was running in England. This car was manufactured from 1897 and 6 years ahead with the support of Vickers. Already 1914 they had sold 3000 copies. During WWI the car production was ceased. Herbert Austin was a good businessman and also a clever organizer. Up to WWI he cooperated with J.P. Siddely and the cars were named Wolseley Siddely. The obstinacy of Herbert Austin to use a horizontal 2 cyl engine made that he came in conflict with his board and because of this he resigned and opened e new firm which got the natural name Austin Motors. Siddely resigned also and opened his firm with the name Deasy. Wolseley continued now with 4 and 6 cyl  engines and followed the demands of the market. During WWI he produced an airplane engine from Hispano-Suiza. This type was a V8, overhead cam and cylinder heads which could be dismantled. During the thirties Wolseley company came under the ownership of  William Morris and there they were locked in the down trend of the English car industry and far later the former company was merged into BMC. Here Wolseley became only a name without any developing work. The last model was a developed large Mini with hydraulic gas spring system from the small Mini. After this the name Wolseley disappeared after that the name had changed to Princess.


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Pictures from the following owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the necessary allowance:
Reference 1: © Björn Bellander   bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 2: ©Foundation Prestige Bugatti Paul Kestler
Reference 36: © Sheila DamKoehler
Reference 37: © Royal Feltner
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