Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1  Scania Vabis Industrial museum
How Surahammar Works became AB Scania Vabis
Text and pictures Bjorn Bellander 11 pages.
 Pictures current 2007, 08, 10, 12, 13
Back Swedish version Scania Vabis website
since 160918
Updated
2017-11-17
© Bjorn Bellander
Scania Vabis industrial museum is normally only used for their customers. Wallenberghallen which earlier has shown Scania Vabis museum. This hall has now got another line 2017, after renovationsom than what this website shows. In order to get access one must call and ask when open for general public, see also official website. Fact for my story is taken from websides, book about Surahammar Industrial museum, Lisjo railway, Scania Vabis 100 years, Visit at and information from motorclub Aros Motor veterans, Aros Veteran Club paper Fjaderbladet 4-2009, Visit at Wallenberg hall Sodertalje, Gert Ekstrom Vara lastbilar, Gert Ekström Svenska bilar, the books Flying Baron Cederstrom, Flying became my life Gosta von Porat.
See also the following websistes about Scania Vabis
Vehicles, Engines, Other objects, the Erikson's vehicles, Private cars
Contents in the following sides
Södertelge Channel, Sodertalje channel, Wagon factory,  Gustaf Erikson, Events between 1911, Scania in Malmo, Sodertelge Works,
About Surahammar works, Vehicles from SurahammarVehicles from ScaniaWagon factory to AB Scania-Vabis, Up to 1921, Links
Page 1

Created 160918

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Swedish version

Missing picture for Johan David Ekenberg

Philip Wersén. Ref 49

Philip Wersén Ref. 49
A.O. Wallenberg. Ref. 49
A.O. Wallenberg Ref. 49

Erik Nordewall

Sodertelge channel, Johan David Ekenberg A.O. Wallenberg and
Philip Wersén

Södertälje Sluss . Ref 49

Sodertelge gate. Can handle 135 m long ships and level  0.7 m. A new larger channel will be built starting 2017.
Sodertalje which before 1000 century was an important connection place, where business people could go by boat out from Malaren lake into the sea. Here was the spill-over place for water from Malaren. This water connextion made it possible for Vikings to sail into Swedish country side.

The most important business place during the early time was Helgo (400-700), later Birka (700-900) and Sigtuna (900-). Here business goods was collected for export. Sodertalje was the place where one could sail through a small water outlet in order to move to Saltlake and the sea.

Södertälje 1000-talet. Ref. 49 
Sodertelge year 1000. Ref. 49
It became a natural and important place for business. But, because of land elevation there was a change, after century 1000, beeing difficult to sail through with the ground sailing boats. During a long time it was possible to move the boats with the help of rolling timber stocks. At last Sodertelge only became a reloading place and it was reduced in importance

Through the Bottnic business coercion, it was decided that all trade had to be transported over Stockholm and Abo. Almost all trade disappeared from Sodertelge and the community fall asleep into a small country side village. This happened for all inner places around Malaren. All ore was sent direct to Stockholm. This situation lasted up to beginning of 1800.

Several times trials had been made to dig a channel over the narrow water outlet to Saltsea, but the technic of the time was not available. Already Engelbrekt 1300 had tried but work had stopped. Charles the IX was interested for this but could not get the project through.

Not until beginning of 1800 a man, Erik Nordwall started and succeeded to open a channel. He was ready 1819. One gate was built and could level 0,7 m.
The main reason why the channel was built was the pressure from the ore tranports from area Bergslagen. 1765 the Bottnic business coersion ceased and Sodertelge started to live upp again.

The Swedish government had decided to connect Sweden by building railways. One of the main railways went from Stockholm to Sodertelge. This part of main rail was ready 1860.

1870 Johan Ekenberg, one able wagon maker established here and built up a factory. He started with railway wagons. This industry was profitable.

This was noticed 1871 by Enskilda banken under the lead of A.O. Wallenberg. He opened a bank office in order to help industries with money loans. At the same time he started AB Atlas i Stockholm to produce railway equipments. But the demand was large and Atlas needed to be enlarged.

In this situation the bank bought the Ekenberg company for an acceptable sum of money and in this way raised it's production. This continued in Sodertelge up to 1888.

At Ekenberg there was a driven engineer employee in Philip Wersén. He became part at Atlas Stockholm in this merging. Wersén was examined at Orebro Technical Elementary, a wellknown swedish school where two other Swedish industrial men had studied, Sven Wingquist and Sven Larsson. They who later were involved in starting Volvo. Anyway Wersén had other purposes and left Atlas to go back to Sodertalje 1891, in order to start a new factory for production of railway wagons.

Wersén had everything settled. A customer in a railway company. Sodermanland North Railway Co. This company build a rail connection from main rail i Sodertalje in order to get their service at Wersén works.

In order to succeed with this Philip Wersén needed money, much money.

Page 2

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Swedish version

Wagon factory Vabis

Peter Peterson. Ref. 48
Peter Peterson Ref. 48
Philip Wersén. Ref 49

Philip Wersén Ref. 49
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
Ängsholms herrgård 2012. Ref. 49


Philip Wersén, Peter Peterson, Gustaf Erikson, Wagon factory.
Vagnfabriken. Ref.
Picture of Wagon factory by Staffan Ekengren. Ref. 48
Surahammar had money over and wanted to be involved in earning money, producing the profitable railway wagons.

Peter Peterson running Surahammar Works noticed the lucrative production of wagons. He proposed his board to start up with this. But as Surahammar didn't have any railway connection the place to choose would be Vasteras. Surahammars Works had earned much money producing wagon wheels since 1866. This money had to be invested.

This happaned 1890-91, just the time when Philip Wersén needed money. He sent a suggestion to Surahammar to together start a wagon company i Sodertalje. Philip had already settled everything so it was easy for Surahmmar board to join his suggestion. Although Peter Petersson was a suspicious leader and didn't accept to give Wersén a leading post in the company.

This could not be acceptable for Wersén, and negotiations followed. This ended with that he got just as his proposal in spite of the suspicion from Peterson.

The new company named Wagon Company of Sodertalje was quickly settled and works building was soon ready. Next year the company had a profit of over 1000 Skr.

Now everything went on with Wersén speed and all curves pointed upwards. Surahammar and Wersén earned lots of money.

This positiv trend lasted up to 1902, when marked for wagons was filled up, both with companies and wagons. Before this the agreements between Wersén and Surahammar ended as it was restricted to 5 years. 1897 Peterson saw a possibility to get rid of Wersén.
 
One new agreement was sent over, but it could not be accepted by Wersén and he ended his cooperation with Surahammar. At the same time Wersén started a new company for wagon production with the name Sodertalje Works (SW).

Dynamic as a leader his new company soon was larger both economic and in procuction than the Wagon Factory. Although he was more marked sensitive for the business cycle and SW was sold 1917 to AB Svenska Machine Works. He was now very rich had bought the burned Angsholm manor, which he aimed to build up. But with this and speculations with German industrial shares led to a personell bankruptcy 1924. He died 1940 as a very impowerished man.

Peterson who was a more cautious leader realized that wagon production must be replaced. During 1890 it was clear that the industry on the move was car industry. Now the more popular name for Wagon factory in Sodertalje became VABIS 1906 which is short for the old name.

He hired a talent engineer 1897 from Borlange iron works in Gustaf Erikson. He got the task to construct a motor vehicle for Sweden. His work should be made both in Sodertalje and Surahammar.
The board in Surahammar was afraid that Wersén would steal ideas and developments. Erikson's task that was to create a vehicle from zero. The first one 1897 that Gustaf suggested didn't reach the accepteable level. This made that Peterson which was in vehicles not so conversant, became generally irritaded over the poor result.

Today we talk about the differnt suggestions from Erikson. The first one was the drawing board car, which never came so far as to be produced. Next suggestion was the Surahammar car, which came so far as testing and demo drive. 1901 Erikson moved his working place to Sodertalje standing in a simple room with earth floor. 1899 we are taking about the B-car, which was a new built A-car/Surahammar car.

During this time 1902 the need for motor a trolley used for inspection of railways showed up. The idea came from USA when they tried to sell one type.

Now everything seemed to settle in the right place when Gustaf went over to petrol as fuel. The interest was big for motor trolleys and Erikson developed 1901-02 one single cylinder engine given 3 hk. From this he also made a 2 cylinder boxer engine. Which was first one is unsure. In these the engine was mounted with the cylinder horizontal. The lorry was exhibited at car fair of Stockholm 1903, but didn't got any buyer. Furthermore he developed a 2 cylinder straight standing engine which came in use for the 1903 tonneau car and upp to 1909 Wagon Factory had a 4 cylinder engine. These developments were extraodinary. The wagon factory also produced 6 rail bound copies from the Q-drawing, or the tonneau car, for use as trolleys. These were sold to Russia. For these I have not been verified

All his engines after 1901 used petrol and was watercold and also used the carburettor he had invented and got patent in several countries. In this time petrol was called gasoil.

The trolley type equipped with an adapted one cylinder Erikson engine, should be the first vehicle which got commercial success. It was watercold half lying cylinder mounting. From this type, 40 were produced up to 1912 and one 1914, when the production ceased.

At the Stockholm car fair 1903 the production from the Wagon Factory was presented. It was the trolley and one lorry equipped with a horizontal 2 cylinder boxer engine. The tonneau car was not ready. The lorry boxer engine gave 9 hk.

The Wagon Factory still hade a good economical result from it's production of railway wagons. No one could suspect that from 1902 the orders would decrease down to hardly 100 wagons a year up to 1911. At this year the merging with Scania was carried out and wagon production ceased.

Peterson who after some years of losses, realized that they had to get car production running in order to replace loss of wagon production. But still he was cautious and wanted to go easy forward. He who earlier had been the dynamic leader in Surahammar.

In spite of the venture it showed up that together with engine production this had been an economical catastrophe with large losses. The board in Surahammar wanted, in the first run, stop this type of production and it seemed that they had no alternative idea.

Sid 3

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Swedish version

Gustaf Erikson


Sura industrial museum

Arvika museum

DeDion Story 3

Gustaf LM Ericsson

Info på Tekniska museet Stockholm. Ref. 1
Info driving wagon 1898. Ref. 1
Ritn på C eller D bilen. Ref. 1
D car. Ref. 1
Motor och startanordning på åkvagnen. Tekniska museet. Ref. 1
Detail on D-car Technical museum Stockholm. Ref. 1
Översikt av A-bilen. Ref. 1
Overview D-car. Ref. 1
Engine in D-Car 1897. Copy of original in Scania museum mounted in D-car. Ref. 1

Kerosene engine in D-Car 1897. Copy of original in Scania museum mounted in D-car. Ref. 1
Utkast till rälsbunden dressin (bil). Ref. 1
Drawing suggestion for railway vehicle. Ref. 1
 Orginal dressin motor. Se info.  Ref. 1
3.5 hk engine for inspection trolley. ref. 1
Info från Wallenberghallen. Ref. 1
Vabis inspection trolley engine 1932 5-7,5 hk. Ref. 1
1901 års motor renoverad av Aros. Ref. 1
Engine from 1901. Ref. 1
1903 års tonneau bil under demo i Västerås 1916. Ref. 1
Car from 1903 on test tour at Aros market 2016.
Ref. 1
Sura Bruksmuseum info. Ref. 1
 Info book for industrial museum Surahammar. Ref. 1

Gustaf Erikson

Gustaf Erikson. Ref. 1
Gustaf Erikson. Ref. 49
Gustaf Erikson, born on the 13th of November 1859 in West Bohr, Lindesberg, died 4 th of May 1922 in Stockholm . He was a Swedish engineer and often called the Swedish father of automobile.
Gustaf Erikson's parents were the miner and free church preacher
Erik Ersson and Anna Christina Olsdotter.

Örebro Tekniska Elementar. Ref. 49
Orebro Technical Elementary. Ref. 49
After graduation at Orebro Technical Elementary he started as a clerk and supervisor at Savsjostrom Works. His school is well known from prominent Swedish engineers as Sven Winquist and Gustaf Larsson and even Philip Wersén. Gustaf worked after his machine engineer examination at different iron works, where he constructed automat machines. Notable at sawmill of Skutskar. He moved then to Domnarvet iron work and worked as supervisor engineer 1893.

The managing director at Surahammars Works Peter Peterson had the opinion that the works needed an additional product and hired Gustaf Erikson 1896 in order to develope selfrunning vehicles. He start working in Södertälje January 1897 and in the spring went with Wagon factory director Carlquist on a study journey in Europe. Up to 1905 there were several such journeys.

Technically he was hired by Wagon factory and his contract stated that "Erikson would exclusivly study, construct and produce suitable automobil vehicles and to this belonging engines". His working place was first a short time in Södertälje but moved to Surahammar, but after 1901 he worked at the Wagon factory in Sodertalje.

 Ritbordsbilen. Ref. 1
Drawing board car. Ref. 1
His first idéas were made in Borlange and he brought it to Surahammar. It is today called the "Drawing board car". It was never built. Erikson chose his first constructions up to 1901 to use kerosene as fuel. Primerly because it could be bought everywhere and that the insurance companies had hard to accept gas (petrol) because of it was flammable.
Princip för "varmluftsmotorn". Ref. 1
 Warm air engine principle. Ref. 1
He chose the principle for an engine, which had a separate burning chamber. This looked like a hot-air engine. It was a 4 cylinder V-engine where the lower side of pistons worked as pumps and upper side were working cylinders.



Surahammars bil. Ref. 11897 a coach was built at 
C.A.Carlssons & Sons in Stockholm paying 450 Skr.  The kerosene engine was mounted in this wagon and now he had created the first car in Sweden. There is a simple copy at MC-museum i Surahammar and one at Wallenberg Hall in Sodertalje, which is the B-car with the D-engine and therfore got the name D-car.
Arrangerad bild från provturen. Ref. 1
Photo reconstruction of the first demo tour. Ref. 1
In spring 1898 the car was demo driven for the Surahmmar board including Peter Peterson. The tour went to Alsatra farm and back. This was about 20 km. For security a horse wagon followed in order to bring the passengers home if necessary. This was not needed.

The car had serious disadvantages. But of course there were some test drivings before. First a bench test autumn 1897 when the engine stopped and then refused to start. This may be because of tolarances in the cyllinder. Next was a runing test spring 1898 a test which also was a failure. First Erikson came 150 m with a push start from two turners. Next he crashed against a mill wall. Gustaf had now got some points to fix, like coupling and brake. Steering geomtry was not solved and Ackeman angles where wrong, but were not changed. Erikson now went up to Peterson to get permission to construct a new engine, but that was not positiv. This meant the A-car coach work was used several times. He had to fix everything just to make a demo tour with the board. Through this the car was hard to steer. But at last it was time for the demo.
Kopian av åkvagnen  i Wallenberghallen. Note har ej någon motor. Ref. 1
Copy of the D-car at Scania industrial museum. Ref. 1
The second built coach work was built 1899 and many parts were taken from the A-car. Then the rests were packed and sent to Sodertalge. It was used for many trials up to 1902, when it got a new 2 cylinder, petrol, boxer engine, named cab. The new, is named the C-car, with the D-engine and is on exhibit at Technical museum Stockholm. One copy are placed at Wallenberg hall.
Eriksons åkvagn även kallad A-bilen. Kopia? på Tekniska museet. Ref. 1
C-D car at Technical museum Stockholm. Ref.

Certain information is said that the A-car car was put in storage after the demo-tour and when Erikson moved his working place to Sodertalje, it was demounted and packed in containers. Another information says that much were first reused for for the B-car and then for the C and D-engines. The car got a complete renovation 1947. See several pictures.
 
1903 års tonneau bil utställd på MC museet. Ref. 1
 The VABIS car from 1903. Ref. 1
The petrol engine was now developed into a 2 cylinder model. It is now in history unsure if the two cylinder watercold engine or the one cylinder was first. There is no information when the 2 cylinder straight engine for the tonneau coach was constructed. The tonneau engine has 2 cylinder giving 12 hk from 2,7 liter volume. It was exhibitited at december car fair in Paris 1903, but was not ready for summer fair in Stockholm.

The car was built in seven copies but 6 of them where rail bound. They were sold to Russia. This info is questioned. The picture of the first car, which was delivered to Surahammar Works 1905, is photoed inside MC-museum. It was used for internal tranportations at Spannarhyttan Norberg, where it was placed the same year. It was sent back to Surahammar 1923. The car is renovated several times more or less. Scania Vabis made one when spark plugs where installed about 1950. The car was registered 1970? and got the number U9. Aros Motor veterans have started a renovation update back to original, 2014.

Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
2 place single cyl. engine cab model. Ref. 57
There were three cars delivered to Surahammar. Produced in different years. One which was called the cab car and was alike the A-car and had the year model 1906, see drwg.. It was for sure equipped with the single engine which Aros MV renovated. This was scrapped? and burned 1921. One 2 seat (no picture) of tonneau type also with year model 1906. The 2 seat car met an unknow fate. Last the 1903 6 seat tonneau car. Already from the beginning it was decided that car production was to be made in Sodertalje. But it was not started until 1905. The engines were still too weak. The lead had higher demands (!!). 1907 a new factory was built for car production, placed in Saltskog, for the cost of 125000:-.
Dressinen försedd med 1901 års motor. Från Wallenberg hallen. Ref. 1
 Inspection trolley 1910 at  Scania industrial museum. Ref. 1
The one cylinder 1901 engine became the first commercial engine when it was placed in a trolley. These were sold by VABIS. It was also sold as a boat engine. The two cylinder boxer engine giving 9 hk was used in the first lorry 1902. But it was not sold until 1906.

 
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
This is one of Scanis Vabis first V8 engines. Ref. 1
Vagnfabriken (VABIS) was forced by economical reasons to merge with car producer Scania 1911 and also lost interest from Surahammar. Gustaf Erikson left his job 1910, but was back 1914 in order to construct a V8 engine with impressing 15 liters volume. This was used in a motor wagon on a marshalling yard to move railway wagons. The fuel was alcohol because of war, and power was over a generator. Read about the V8 from DeDion.

About Erikson it is said that he could not construct two engines the same and every car was a half ready experiment. This  may be the cause that the car production never started. He invented a carburettor which was patented in several European countries and was very noteable.
Note. I like Erikson as a  design engineer. I myself  just the same could not design a second time without making changes.

When Ethyl AB started to experiment with alcohol engines Erikson was recruited 1918 to Gosta Ekstrom Alcohol Engines AB as technical supervisor and inventor. Because of  the economical crises the company had to cease. Erikson ended his employee 1921. He past away after some time of sickness, 1922 in Stockholm. The same year he got patent for his carburettor in USA. Note that VABIS went bankruptcy 1921 with 21 miljon in depts.

Erikson was member of Royal Automobile Club, and was the first to get KAK gold plaque.


Continue page 8

Page 4

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Swedish version

Machine Works AB Scania


Surahammars Works

What happened between

But as in all bad times VABIS would be saved 1911 by another successfull company. Machine factory AB Scania in Malmo. This company needed a cooperation company for investing in lorries

Peterson who died 1908 had already started to draw back from his lead. New men were coming. With the depression in which followed a natural reduction of orders for railway wheels. This had before been the economical security for Surahammar. The works started now to lose contact what happened on the market.

In Surahammar K.E. Ohman was now the leader of the works. He had problems and his name was on the way to be outsourched from the board. He got information that ASEA was on the way to buy a iron works. In the same time one can say that the whole trend for ASEA consisted of kartels, forced mergings and buying of companies which had problems. All this was forced through with hard hands by the lead of ASEA. The most well known overtaken is by
STAL i Finspang when Birger Ljungstrom was in Petrograd for negotiations.
Exempel på Volvo lager, senare benämnt SKF. Ref.40
 First produktion rollers were named Volvo.
One can compare ASEA with SKF where Sven Winquist with kind hands bought the companies which used the patent of SKF.




Sura had the production fascilities that ASEA wanted to make sure to have control over. Production of axles, large amd minor mouldings, and possibility to start rolling plates and production of elektroplates. The last product was earlier imported. Ohman secured that he had one larger shareholder on his side and put forward the suggestion to sell for the Surahammar board.

When the price had raised they agreed to sell. For 17 millions Surahammar Works was merged into Asea 1916. There is also to be known that Surahammar was economical strong as VABIS short before had merged with Scania to AB Scania Vabis.

It was a good business for the Surahammar community and its inhabitants. There became a calm progress up to 1970 th.

We now must back, in the history to 1911, to see when merging of VABIS was made with Scania.

Page 5

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Swedish version

Machine factory Scania AB

Aster Automobile

Heinrich Kamper



Hilding Hessler. Ref. 49

Hilding Hessler Ref. 49
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
Per Nordeman Ref. 49
Scania "Gula faran". Ref. 49
Scania 1901 "Yellow danger". 3 test cars were built.  Ref. 1

Machine factory for cars in Malmo

In Malmo the English cycle producer Humber had 1896 started av Swedish daughter company. Read about Humber

Cykel med hjälpmotor. Ref. 49 In order to go make a quick time in history ahead. Already 1900 the Humber company was taken over by Machine Factory Co in Malmo. They started to interest in motor vehicles. During some years they had 3 executive directors. The most important were Fredrik Hessler, who started the line with car interest and 1905 Per Alfred Nordeman.

Aster 1902. Ref. 49Already from the beginning they were enough sensible, when they fetched knowledge from France and Germany. This instead, as solving all problems themselves. Surahammar made it from scratch. OK. VABIS made journeys to get  information. The picture show one French Aster which in much look like the 1903 Scania. (Ref. 49).

Scania "Bjuhrling". Ref. 49Their first car which was exhibited at car fair in Stockholm 1903 (Ref. 1) and made success. This was a look alike Aster car but with an engine from Germany, Kämper in Berlin and many parts used from Germany. A serie of 5 cars were build 1902. One of these made sensation and drove in 3 days, 32 hours total driving time to the Stockholm car fair 1903.

The Scania company realized that what the marked realy needed were lorries. These were aimed to be used very much in local areas. This was an important conclusion, when they had studied the sistuation for swedish roads. Any larger number of cars for private use was not to believe in.
Scania made also big success at the Stockholm fair 1903 when their lorry was driven from Malmo full with cargo to Stockholm. Today 2016 this is 500 km. Later it was an industrial fair in Lund 1907.

Till Stockholmsutställningen på 3 dagar. Ref. 49
 Scania on the long tour from Malmo to Stockholm 1909. Ref. 1
1908 Scania could show engines with up to 45 hk and lorries which could load 1,5 to 6 ton. 1909 their latest developed lorry, now had been equipped with ball bearings. This lorry made an even larger senstaion 1909 when driving to Stockhlm in three days. This was at a lorry event organized by Royal Automobile Club.

Cycle production had to withdraw for the more successful production of transportaion cars in the form of lorries.

Nordeman had taken over the lead after the passing away of Fredrik Hessler 1905. He realized that further development of transport products would cost much money and for this reason searched for a business partner.

The board of Surahammarwas sat at a meeting 1911 and discussed what to do against the current negative economical results for VABIS. There had been contacts with Nya Atlas AB but it was no interets for cooperations. Further more they had not found any other company which had interest in taking over wagon production. The only thing the board had in mind was to get rid of their losses and their only solution was to cease VABIS.

In this situation a request came from Nordeman about negotiations about merging. The board in Surahammar had wet serviettes and dripping foreheads. They now got a troublesome problem solved without any bigger effort.


Coninue page 9.

Page 6

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Swedish version

Enoch Thulin

Carl Cederstrom

NAG lorry

Swedish Machine works

Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1  SW flying school. Ref. 49
Stäketbron Ref. 48
 The bridge at Staket. Ref. 49
Svängbron byggd av SW öve Södertälje kanal. Ref 48.
 The turning bridge built by SW over Sodertelge channel. Ref. 49
Albatros planet med 6 cyl. motor. Ref. 1
 Albatross with  6 cyl  160 hk engine. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Original Albatross with  6 cyl  160 hk engine. Ref. 49
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 The last Swdish built copy of Mecedes engine. Got 100 hk. Built by Vabis. Ref. 1

Sodertelge Works

Södertälje Werkstäder 1914. Ref. 49
Sodertelge Worsk 1914. Ref. 49
The agreement with Philip Wersén was agreed for a period of 5 years and the contract had to be renewed 1897. Peter Peterson could now get rid of Wersén.

A new contract was sent to him wich included unacceptable conditions. One suggestion came of couse back, which also were unacceptable. This was of course just a play for galleries. Wersén had already prepared for a new company which got the name Sodertelge Works. (SW).

Everything went always quick, when Wersén had decided himself. He had earned lots of money during his time with VABIS. A new works building was quickly prepared and already 1900 SW was a larger wagon producer than VABIS.

It would show that SW was very sensitive for changings in the business cycle. When the wagon production ceased after 1904 it became of no help, that he took other types of jobs, like bridges and other larger iron constructions. One was a delivery to Sodertelge channel. This bridge was later moved to Staket north west of Stockolm 1926. Today 2016 only for local traffic. It can be seen from E 18.


NAG lastbil på Motala museum. Ref. 1
 Helios/NAG pa Motala museum. Ref. 1
SW also tried to import lorries from Germany. One such a lorry was mounted at SW, but it stood unsold for a long time. This lorry NAG is today 2016 placed at Motala museum and has the name Helios. It is considered to be the first lorry in Sweden.
Södertelge Works had a larg business with buying and selling imported cars. Mostly the came from Germany in order to put together and the sell. The mostcommon exporter Was N.A.G. These types of car got namechanges to Helios when sold in Sweden. But it show that these tradings didn't generate monsey enough and were terminated


Carl Cederström Flygbaronen. Ref. 49
 Carl Cederstrom. Ref. 49
The flying baron Carl Cederstrom was during 2 years involved with SW. For sure, on his own initiative. He got Wersén to start up an aviatik division (production of airplanes) and for copying of engines 1914.  Furthermore a flying school. 2 years, was the time which Cederstrom normally was interested in a project. For this project both von Porat and Fjallback was hired.

1913 Cederstrom and Wersén travelled to Paris in order get business contacts and buy licenses for production of Farman air planes equipped with Gnome engines. They copied the Enoch Thulin's way of working.

NAG lastbil på Motala museum. Ref. 1
 Original Albatross med 6 cyl  160 hk Mercedes motor. Ref. 1
The first customer was Anders Zorn, who supported Swedish defence. He ordered two planes. Later SW got order from Swedish military to copy one German Albatross which was left i Sweden and even it's engine. The Albatross plane had a Mercedes 6 cylinder engine giving up to 160 hk. Earlier there were only rotations engines i Sweden giving max 80 to 90 hk. SW got the order to copy the airplane anf forwarded the engine construction to AB Scania Vabis.

Cederstrom moved with his third wife Minna Poppius to manor Elghem near Saltskogs farm.

1917 when the time was out for SW. There was a merging for SW with AB Swedish Machine Works. Now Philip Wersén became an investor and made business in German shares. This  was catastrophic for Wersén economy.

Carl Cederstrom now had a new project 1916, when he started Nordisk Aviatik together with some flying mates. This company was situated in Midsummercrown. This was where Ericsson central office is situated 2016. Here he hired engineer Lars Fjallback as technical supevisor. Carl von Porat as test pilot and Gosta Kroksted as a contact within the Swedish defence. All of them came from old SW aviatik division.

Cederstrom and Krokstedt ended there lifes during a delivery flight to Finland 1918. The cause is not known but Cederstrom was found drowned. Kroksted who carried 50000 crowns in payment was never found.

Here the connection between SW and Cederstrom ended, while the rests of SW was 1917 merged to Swedish Machine Works. Left over air equipment was bought by Enoch Thulin. The engine production was left at AB Scania-Vabis but the buyer became Thulinverken which later had this engine on there production list.

Page 7

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Swedish version

Wheels for railway wagons

Axles

   Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
Adolf Zethelius. Ref. 49
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
Puddel oven. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Hammer. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Rolling mill. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Book about railway Sura Lisjo. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Info about railway wheels. Ref. 1

Nyby Bruk

Sura Bruksmuseum

Production at Surahammars Works
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 First and second generation of wheels. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 The museum in old rolller building. Ref. 1
Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Store of pig iron. Ref. 1
Before and after, when Surahammars Bruk with Peter Peterson joined the picture.

Now we must jump to another community and another company, which was on the way to meet Philip Wersén. This was Surahammar Works with managing director Peter Peterson.

Surahammar is a village at the Stromsholm river 20 km north Vasteras. It had the possibility to get water power. Here in the 900 century one so called "Krono hammer" was placed. Axel Oxenstierna (1583-1654) took over 1626. In this little village it was calm and development stood almost still up to beginning of 1600 century. At that time there was still only one forge.

1716 Sofia Christina Lilliestierna bought the works and controlled the small society up to 1744. She had married the peer Palameds Rigman, a former district court man from Riga. He died already 1714. Then it became different meanings about the transaction of Surahammar and it delayed 10 years before it was settled. 1726 Sofia Christina could start acting. The works had good times and when the next owner arrived good times continued.

It was a man from Stockholm Adolf Zethelius and his son who bought Surahammar on executive auction for just over 60150 Riksdaler Banco. He was at that time 64 yeras old. His son Herman (26) becamer the works managing director. Adolf owned since earlier Nyby Works outside Eskiltuna. Read about this in the links Nyby Bruk and Sura Works museum.

But unfortunatly Herman drowned together with several works owner on visit at Sura while they were transported over the Ramnas water. Instead Adolf's other son Erik Wilhelm became managing director in the community.

Noted is that Adolf Zethelius built Sura Manor for a higher cost than the sum for the works.

Zethelius had at his Nyby Works developed a new method to use wood as heating the ovens instead of with coal. This was used to malleable pig iron. It was a change from the english puddel method. He had got patent for the new way to get better iron therefore he was alone with this.

Between 1845 and 1847 Surahammar was reorganized and the puddelmethod was introduced. Equipment was partly taken from Nyby Bruk just as professional workers. Two puddelovens was built. One 7 ton mumbling hammer and one knip hammer and also a rolling mill to produce flat bar iron. The works was on duty 1847. Up to 1851 the puddel iron was sent to Nyby Works for rolling. 1852 Sura started with their own rolling for plates. Puddel steel was a special product until the martin method took over. The important thing that Zethelius influenced in Sweden was rolling.

1851 Surahammar bought Lisjo farm and Larsansjo Works. The Surahammar works was developed and after 20 years there was considerably more people hired. Adolf Zethelius past away 1864, but his son Erik Wilhelm had earlier taken over the lead. Surahammar succeeded to take the business cycles good in the end of 1800. This was just for their special steel.

Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Locomotive Vaulunder at Sura Bruksmuseum. Ref. 1
The buying of Lisjo farm was depended on that Surhammar got access for wood to the two puddel ovens. In order to supply the transport of this one 11 km railway was built, called Lisjo rail, from Lisjo to Surahammar.

1872 the works was reorganized again and got the name Surahammars Bruks AB and later the dynamic managing director Peter Peterson 1883-1908. He organized the works to be adjusted for the new times.

The works got modernized and iron production went over to the martin method. This gave the opportunity to produce new products, such as brake blocks and producing steam cylinder gables. One steam machine was installed and a power station was build in the swiftly-flowing water 1895. The Surahammar Works now became what we now know. There was also a commission to produce railway wheels.


Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 Building av railway wheel. Ref. 1
The most important product became since 1865 the production of railway wheels for rails wagons an axles. This product became so good that railway ministry requested Surahammar to produce them. The first wheel pair was delivered 1866. It was primarly a copy of an English construction. Because of the puddelsteel Surahammar became the only producer of these products.

1870 a cooperation was started with Sandviken Iron work. They had the rights for martin process. Through this Surahammar could produce wheel rings of outstanding quality.

The company and factory buildings were now rebuilt in order to use this refreshing iron method. 1924 the production of the wellknown spokes wheels was abandoned. All wheels were now produced with martin steel.

Svana Works was bought 1905 and some mines were accompanied and furthermore, what was more important, interests in the foundry of Spannarhyttan Norberg.

ASEA bought almost all shares in Surahammar Works 1916. The aim was to have control over what Surahmmar could deliver. Large and small mouldings, forgery and possibility to roll heavy and thin plates. Interest was also forwarding be able to roll elektroplate in different types.

This story that Surahammar has gone through is in a keen way shown in the old rolling hall built up as a museum. Here a visitor can get a good view if there is a guide knowing the history.


Page 8

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Swedish version

The drawing paper car

A-car

B-car

C/D-car

1903 year tonneau

Varm air engine

3-3,5 hk 1 cyl.

9 hk lorry

Vabis Limo 2S. Ref 1
 Vabis 1909 car at Torsongs museum. Ref. 1
Vabis lastbil 1903, ombyggd till 1909 och såld. Ref.1
 Vabis lorry from 1903, sold 1906, rebuilt several times till 1909. Ref. 1
Eriksons C-car bil 1901 at Railway museum Gävle. Note watercold. Ref. 1
Eriksons car C-1901. Note probably watercold?. Photo at Railwaymuseum Gävle. Ref. 1
Det. of Eriksons C-carl 1901 exhibited at Railwaymuseum Gävle. Note chain drive. Ref. 1

Eriksons car C-1901. Note chain drive. Photo at Railwaymuseum Gävle. Ref. 1
Eriksons C car 1901. Mote chain drive and differential?.  All cars were equipped with silencer even if this one seems to be a new type. Photo at Railwaymuseum Gävle. Ref. 1

Eriksons C car 1901. Mote chain drive and differential?.  All cars were equipped with silencer even if this one seems to be a new type. Photo at Railwaymuseum Gävle. Ref. 1

Vehicles before merging with Scania
A-bilen. Ref. 1
The simple Surahammar car  copy. Build by Surahammar work shop school. Photo outside MC-museum Surahammar. Ref. 1
Continue from page 3
Dawing board car.

Ritbordsbilen. Ref. 1
Drawing boarad car. 1897. Ref. 1
Gustaf Erikson who before working in Surahammar 1896, worked at Iron Works of Borlange. There he had a special interest for motor vehicles. In free time he constructed self moving vehicles. The principle for his constructions was brought with him to Surahammar.

The drawing itself is of course done in Surahammar. Here he realized that his construction should be too expensive. If you study the drawing one can see that the power drive was over gear wheels. It looks like W-gears, but this type was not invented yet. It was made by André Citroên beginning of 1900. So the conclusion must be that it is double gears wheels. Note also that he had used this type in three places. It would be very expensive. The same thing is valid for the differential. This last type may be used in trolleys. One should know that Renold was not credited the invention of roller chains until 1880.


Motor med separat förbränning. Ref. 1
 Kerosene engine with separate burning. Ref. 1
His type of engine was "Separate burning". This was used for the fuel kerosene. One can see the big container in the middle. Note the large pipe from engine to container. Furthermore we know that it was a four cylinder V variant. The upper part of pistons were working and two lower parts were working as pumps for fuel and air. The engine was air cold. Water colling was not  implemented until 1900-1902.

Driving wagon/A-car 1897
Gustaf Eriksons åkvagn/A-bilen i Wallenberghallern. Ref. 1
 The A-car at Wallenberg hall. Ref. 1.
The first test demo tour had a preview of test trials.  The first was in autumn 1897, when the engine was bench tested. The engine started and ran a short while. Then it refused to start. It is believed that the piston had fastened because of too close tolerances. It was at this oppotunite that  Erikson had orederd a celebration dinner form their housewife.

In spite of this failure a wagon coach was orderd for 450:- and was delivered october 1897. Now Erikson worked hard and was ready with all changes spring 1898. Now the car was test driven with the V4 engine. Two test drives have been notified.  At this test Erikson had borrowed two strong turners from the works to help pushing the car to run. The first time it only became driving 150 m. But the car was pushed again. The tour became a little longer but ended against a mill wall.

Now Erikson went up to Peterson and asked for permission to construct a new engine. This was the opportunity when Peterson answered "Engineer must first get this car running". On the V4 car/engine Erikson had realized some things. The car needed a coupling and some kind of brake and the engine would need a few improvements. The Peterson answer became the cause that the wagon coach was used for several engine trials.

The kerosene engine with the separate burning chamber didn't have power enought to get the car to start. Therefore two pusher from the works had to help. After the crash the car was mended and engine placement together with some other changes were made. This took some months and then Erikson invited the board for a demo drive.

This demo tour succeeded good and the driving went to Alsatra Farm and back about 20 km. In distance a horse wagon followed which Peterson had ordered for eventually avoid to walk home. Gustaf had suggested afterwards that Surahammar would produce some copies. Peterson is said to have answered "Not for I understand this vehicle, but it let out much smoke".

Now the A-car was storaged until 1899 and Erikson moved his working place to Södertälje. Here the wagon coach was used and other parts to build a new car. The B-car. The B-engine was either not lucky. The following C and D engines used the same coach. Now we have come to 1902. It is the newbuilt B-car which is called the D-car because it got the D-engine. This car is on exhibit at Technical museum.

Year 1900-01 he went over to petrol and constructed one 2 cylinnder and one single cylinder engine. Much was used from the B-engine. The single engine had 0,7 litres volume. This engine was a good one and used for the trolleys.

1903 year 2 cylinders, watercold boxer, giving 9 hp and with 2.7 (2.3) litres volume, engine were realized during 1902. Futhermore a 2.7 litres with parallell standing cylinders meant for the tonneau car. The boxer engine got id E (E for drawing E).  The intention was that it also should be tested  in the lorry. The car with tonneau body, 2 gear box, cardan and rear axle should be ready for the Paris fair in december 1903.The lorry with the boxer engine and 9 hp was delayed because of a misfunctioning coupling. It didn't get any buyer until 1906.

The tonneau was not ready for the Stockholm car fair spring 1903. A new coach had been bought from the French coach producer Laboudette. This was the first car later delivered to Surahammar, to be used for transportations in Spännarhyttan, Norberg 1905. The car was sent back to Surahammar 1923.

Year 1900-01 Erikson moved over to gas oil/petrol and constructed a single cylinder engine with 0.7 litres. This engine was lucky and it was used for trolleys. It was developed into two variants.

Old member of mc-club Gert Rask tells that the car was storaged in Spannarhyttan 1943 to 44. When he as a young boy climbed in the garage to look at it. According to Mats Nordstrom this is possible as there was no place for it in Surahammar during the war.

At the same time 1903 6 copies were produced and sold. They were aimed for railway driving in Russia. This is information is only a hearsay.
It is hard to differ all variants which were made,  A-car, B-car, B to C engine, C-car, D1-car. D2-car and E-engine. Many times the word car should be engine as they were tested in the same coach work. The letters are in many cases the id from Erikson drawings and often together with a short text.

B-car 1899.
B-bilen 1899. Ref. 1
 B-car 1899. Ref. 1
During the autumn 1898 Erikson started to develope a two stroke kerosene engine. This went on till 1899-00. The engine got it's own explosion room in the cylinder head. The fuel was supplied with injection and ignition took place by glowing pipe or electrical impuls. It was working with the two stroke principle. The engine was now placed behind rear axle and power drive transferred with pistons.
It has been shown that Erikson first draw details and when all were mounted and in order he made the assembly drawing.

Further development of this engine was stopped. From this moment all Erikson engines were watercold and got silencers. The fuel was still kerosene. This B-car was build and tested in Surahammar 1899. This engine was tested with petrol as an experiment.

C-car 1900-01.
In the middle of year 1900 Erikson started work with his last kerosene engine. It became a 2 cylinder engine and it was air cold. Much of it was taken from the B-engine. The turning handle was the starting aid. This construction was overtaken by the next engine for petrol. D-engine/car.

D-car 1902.
C-D bilen. Ref. 1
 Drawing ID C. 1900-02. Ref. 1
Also in the middle of year 1900 Erikson started with what should be the D-car/engine. This got it's development from the C-car but was run on gas oil or petrol and had another type of gear box. This became a lucky variant and was developed as a one cylinder variant and used for trolleys.

Motor driven dressin enligt Eriksson. Ref. 1
Drawing ID Q.  Engine driven trolley 1902. Ref. 1
Trolley engine 1902,
this was called type D1.
Giving 3.5 hk, became the first commercial success.
It's forerunner was the two cylinder boxer engine. Drive was with petrol. The drawing show gear drive.


D2motorn till C/D bilen. Skannad ur Fjäderbladet.
    D2-engine for C/D cars. Ref. 5

Dressin motor 1932. Ref. 1
 Inspection trolley engine from 1932

The one cylinder type was sold for trolleys and boats. Erikson also constructed the rail bound wagon. Note that the cylinder is almost standing straight up. For trolleys sold in Sweden had chain drive.

Dressin från . Ref. 1
 Inspection trolley delivered to Stockholm-Vastras railway 1910.
Ref. 1
Those which were sold to the railway companies are
considerable more suited. 
 Furthermore the six which were sold to Russia had the design from his rail car drawing with gear drive (?).  This selling is unsure.



1902-03 year Vabis engine.
1903 års bil på Aros marknad. Ref. 1
 1903 car at Aros market 2016. Ref. 1
This engine is constructed 1902 at the same time as the lorry and trolley engines. It is difficult to know in which order these three types were constructed. but as the trolley was commercail, I think it was the first, but could have got a different stroke. They used much the same components. The tonneau car was sent to Paris car fair 1903 and as well to some others. The car was stored in something like a barn during WWII according to information and it was possible to crawl under the entrance door, in order to look at the wonder. Not until 1923 it was back in Surahammar. 1905 Erikson made his last study journey out in Europe. The last engine a 4 cylinder variant came about 1908.

Scania Vabis Industrial museum. Ref. 1
 1902 D1 engine then adjusted for 2 cylinders in Vabis 1903 car. Ref. 57
The 1903 car may have been renovated during the 30th. In the beginning of 1950 it was left to Scania Vabis which made an update. 1970 it was registered with the nyew typ of number. Still the old U9 is used.
The body type was the normal around 1905. The market liked the tonneau body type. One typical such a car was Buick 1903 and it is just alike our VABIS, although it had chain drive. There must have been several engineers working during this time, constructing at least 3 different engines one lorry and the tonneau car with gearbox and cardan drive.

Page 9

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Swedish version

"the Yellow Danger"

the Bjuhrling car

Lorry 1902

Aster

Heinrich Kamper

Aster 1902. Ref. 49
Aster Tonneau


Vehicles from Scania before merging with Wagon Factory.

 Scania 1901. Ref. 1
First Scania built car as a testseries of 2-3 copies. 1901. Photo from Technical museum Stockholm. Ref. 1
Machine Co Scania vehicles
continue from page 5

The English cycle producer Humber started 1896 a Swedish daughter company named Swedish Humber AB. The main product was cycles. Some equipped with an engine.
This firm was overtaken by Machine AB Scania in Malmo 1900-01. The production list was raised and interest was also for motor vehicles.

Anton Svensson and Reinhold Thorssin had got commission to work with an engine driven product already 1901 from manager Hilding Hessler. 1905 a new manager came with Per Nordeman.

They used important components in their constructions using licences just to keep cost and time down.

For this they had contact with a French firm Aster. Here they bought single cylinder engines. Several component were bought from Germany. Scania started to build 2-3 trial cars. In these one Astor single cylinder watercold engine was mounted. The body performed just as was common at that time of 1900. The car was painted yellow and got the nickname "Yellow danger". 1902 they started with a new series of 5 cars. At the same time there were cycles, motor cycles and one lorry during construction and assembling.
 
The two leading constructeurs had different opinions where to place the engine in a lorry. Thorssin had the meaning that the best place was behind front axle contrary to in front and over front axle. This went so far that Thorssin stopped working and moved to AB Engine Factory Gothenburg. AMG.

Their first car 1901 first exhibited in Copenhagen 1902 and the second serie car at Stockholm car fair 1903, where it was a success. It was a car with engine from German Kämper using many parts from Germany and France. One of these cars made a sensational driving to Stockholm 1903 in three days and 32 hours total driving time. One copy was sold to Bjuhrling Drug store.

Scania realized that the market needed more of the type lorries. One important end meaning was that they only was to be used localy. This because of the bad situation for Swedish roads. Any larger number of private cars was not to be expected.
Scania had already started with a lorry 1902. In this the engine was placed behind the front axle. The engine was a watercold 2 cylinder 12 hk and drive was chain on rear wheels. This lorry was mainly a copy of a French car. The model was never sold on the market and driven only within the factory area of  Scania. Picture below the lorry from 1909 which was equipped with ball bearings and driven with full cargo in three days to Stockholm. Per Nordeman and Sven Winquist standing in the middle.

Scania Typ 1A 1903. Ref. 1
Scania type 1A 1903
Humber hjälpmotor. Ref. 1
Scania cycle production.
Scania 1909. Ref. 1
Scania 1909 lorry

Page 10

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Swedish version





Vabis merging with Scania 1911..

Managing director Peterson was deeply irritaded over the bad result for Gustaf Erikson. All the time it was new constructions and more costs. He wanted primerly get rid of Erikson and 1900 Gustaf was moved to Sodetalje. There he was installed in a test works and the construction division.

It is supposed that Erikson got a more calm situation and did not need to struggle with the board of Surahammar to get permission to continue his developings. He had now changed to use petrol. He continued from his last 2 cylinder kerosene boxer engine and worked with with a new construction using petrol. It should be a single cylinder, with 2 cylinders.

This single cylinder engine became a lucky construction and was used mounted in a trolley. From this Vabis succeeded to sell 41 copies. Furthermore an engine was built with two cylinders, vertical, which got the production year of 1903 and mounted in a car with tonneau body. This car was exhibited at Paris car fair 1903. It had the new vertical 2 cylinder, watercold engine giving 12 hk. This last engine should be the last type, although a 4 cylinder came up to 1909. See the 2S Limosuine, which is preserved.

The 1903 car is preserved and is today from 2014 under renovation in the first hand of engine and drive system. It has been seen driving at Aros Market. This after several upgrades.

The car was built in one copy equipped for road driving.  Surahammar was part owner in Norberg foundry and placed the road going car there and could also drive there with a trolley.
Vabis also understood that lorries were the future and had constructed a 1,5 ton lorry. Here was the boxer engine with 9 hk engine used and also the standing 2 cylinder type used. They had chain drive on the rear wheels. Economy for VABIS was bad and large losses showed up during coming years.

The very carefully board in Surahmmar with Peter Peterson in front just waited and was not acting. They only waited that everything should be solved by itself. From 1902 up to 1911 it was continuing losses. Peterson died 1908.

It came to the an end, when merging with Scania was decided. This with no initial activity from Surahammar board. This merging ended with that Scania got shares for 400000 and Vabis got 300000. The production of rail wagons ceased because of lack of orders. Sodertalge Works was still left. Some factory buildings were sold to Scania Vabis 1911. Later 1912-13 Surhammars Works sold the the remaining buildings and their shares to Scania Vabis. Surahmmar now again became the calm village where railway wheels still were a product. Everyting was again solved when ASEA bought Surahammar 1916.

Nordeman became managing director for Scania Vabis and the head office was placed in Malmo. It was decided that lorries were to be produced there. Cars and engine production was for Sodertalje. 1911 the wagon factory (VABIS) was liquidated and the new name became Scania Vabis AB. Now it was time to fire the excess of workers at Vabis. The railway production was not involved in this business.

Everything was ready for a new expansion and that was what happened up to 1918. At the end of the war Scania Vabis expected a significant expansion caused by the civil market. Just start working.

Page 11

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Norns foundry

How Scania Vabis survived

Missing picture for Per Nordeman

Hans Osterman. Ref. 49
Hans Osterman Ref. 49

AB Scania Vabis with Per Nordeman up to bankruptcy 1921

The arrangement which was settled through the negotiations were according the following:

The new company should end up as separate units producing vehicles. Lorries were moved to Malmo and cars were concentrated in Sodertalje factory. Head office was placed in Malmo. All factory buildings were left for Surahmmar Works with the right to sell. Production of railway parts were not involved, but it mainly ceased 1911. Sura had still their wheels and axles

Per Nordeman who now sat in Malmo and led this rather large company AB Scania Vabis. Already 1912-13 the buildings were filled up and Surahammar Works could sell the remaining buildings that were left. The head office was moved to Sodertalje of necessity. All development possibilities and mark were able in Sodertalje. The lorries were still left in Malmo up to 1926.

The company result 1911 was that 40 private cars, 23 lorries and one bus were sold.

August Nilsson entered 1915 as construction manager. He had been hired already 1913 and became the link to the roots of Scania Vabis. This was what needed. Note that Gustaf Erikson had to go 1910 but was rehired 1914 in order to construct a V8 alcohol engine with generator to be used as for yard marshalling railway wagons.

New markets were opened and AB Scania Vabis opened selling in Norway, Denmark and Russia. Selling in Sweden reorganized in different areas.

There were several new types of engines coming and when  WWI started there became a strong business cycle. New type of vehicles were ordered from defence and also orders for aeroplane engines.

In order to be independent of steel deliveries two iron works were bought. Bruzaholm and Larsbo-Norns.

The production had during the war been concentrated for special work vehicles. Ambulances, fire cars and other types. Scania Vabis now concentrated for longer series with stadardized vehicles. From these special models should be built. Private car production should in the long rund end up.
But it is not always that everything act as one thinks. The war ended and the expected high cycle from the private marked should take over the military orders. But no way. A long time low business cycle started instead. The marked was overwhelmed with cheap foreign products.

AB Scania Vabis had large economical troubles and in order to turn this Nordeman had the opinion to invest the company out of this cycle. He mortgaged the company over it's economical border and was suspended at a board meeting.

This ended that AB Scania Vabis had to cancel their payments. That's the same as bankruptcy. A new board was chosen and for managing director, Hans Osterman was elected. He could not do so much, instead his work became to liquidate AB Scania Vabis. Bruzaholm and Larsbo-Norn were closed and the main part of workers were fired. At the board meeting 1921 the company had 21 million in debts.

Now the bank interfered and a reorganisation started. The company was changed into two. One new AB Scania Vabis and one "Vardhsolmen for liquidation". The last got all firm means, while the other got all economical properties. The fourth of August Vardsholmen was liquidated and "hap" 21 million in debts were conjured away. Of course the large investors had to take the responsibility. Read the link although it is a bit weak.

For new managing director Gunnar Lindmark was elected. He could now lead the company towards an increasing demand. All production was now placed in Sodertalje and car production should be complete. Still lorry production continued in Malmo till 1927. The last private car was delivered in Sodertalje 1929 for managing director use.

Already 1924 the board could look positiv at the development and share capital was raised with 200000 Skr. 1927 AB Scania Vabis started to make profit. Just this year is important in Sweden because Volvo started to deliver the first private cars and Thulinverken ceased their car production. Sweden was running again.

The adventure with vehicle production had been brought to a positiv end and was now on the right level.

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Reference 1: © Bjorn Bellander   bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 48:© From website

Reference 49: ©Picture from Wikipedia
Reference 57:
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