Entrance ticket 2017. Ref. 1
Ticket 2017.
Hassleholm museum
Text and pictures Björn Bellander.
Picturees current 2007  15 pages
Back  Swedish version  Official website

since 060105

© Björn Bellander

EntranceHorse wagonsPanzer m/42Panzer m/31Panzer m/38Panzer 301Panzer 302,
Terrain car KV/42Panzer 122Panzer 74Panzer 104Army mcVolvo 934Panzer 103S,
Allied bomber crash place 1944Links

Page 1

Created 20140201

Note that this museum has changed it's name to Hässlehoms museum. This to show their indepencence.


Swedish version

The museum entrance

Regiment leaders for P2. Ref 1
Regiment leaders for P2. Ref 1
Leaders for garrisons. Ref 1

Leaders for garrisons. Ref 1

About Hassleholm

Hassleholms Garnison

Museum entrance. Ref 1
Museum entrance. Ref 1

Hassleholm military vehicle museum is situated in an old industrial factory.

Here the club Vehicle Museum Friends gathered mainly older military vehicles which have been used by military i Sweden.

The club has also succeeded to escape from the impoverishment which most other military museums in Sweden had to go through when the central museum Arsenalen opened.

For example Malmkoping and panzer museum Axvalla vehicle museums were closed.

One propeller from an English bomber show the way to the entrance door. This four engine Lancaster aircraft crashed outside Helsingborg.

This propeller has no connection with the crashed bomber in Vittjsö after it's mission. See side 15.

Of course the Friends are former old active military men bound to Hassleholm Garrison.  Former the main collection was about support troops but was enlarged to the Hassleholm Panzer Regiment.

All military activities in Hassleholm were cancelled 2005.

Page 2


Swedish version

Horsewagoon in the museum

Landeau wagon for two horses. Ref 1
Landeau wagon for two horses. Ref 1Pony wagon. Ref 1
Pony wagon. Ref 1




 Horsewagon for two horses. Ref 1
Horsewagon for two horses. Ref 1

At my visit there were 3 old horse wagons placed in the entrance hall.

One passenger wagon, Landau and one Pony wagon.

Landau is an open wagon according to the large picture. It was able to harness 2 horses for this wagon, which is a covered wagon.

It had only windows in the entrance doors. The pony wagon had only a simple rain cover and had no driver's rain cover.

If these three wagons have connections with officers transports, they will suit good.

The club intend to collect more wagons of these types.

Page 3


Swedish version

Panzer m/42

Info strv m/42 in Swedish. Ref 14
Info strv m/42 in Swedish. Ref 14
Volvo V8. Ref 1

Volvo V8. Ref 1Volvo V8 from Volvo museum. Ref 1
Volvo V8 at Volvo museum. Ref 1Drawing specification over Volvo V8 engine. Ref 1
Drawing specification over Volvo V8 engine. Ref 1


Panzer m/42

Volvo engines

Panzer battle leader m/42. Ref 1
Panzer battle leader m/42. Ref 1

When the new 22 ton panzer began to be delivered 1944 to the military. The organization started to go in the right directions for this kind of constructions, but still 10 years behind.

This panzer wagon is still too narrow and the wideness for the carrying bands are too small. Compare the number of carrying wheels on M/40/38, 4 against 6. Later the construction from German Panther and Tiger was paid attention with carrying wheels mounted side by side. In this way it became a larger carrying band area. The bridges in Sweden! The bands don't takes load between two wheels.

The engine had not enough power for this panzer which became more heavy every time updating was done. There were several different kind of gearboxes.

There were two different engines. 2 Scania Vabis 162 ps or Volvo C8 380 ps.

For these engines an electromechanical or the hydro mechanical (the railcar one), or just a mechanical gearbox were mixed.

The Volvo V8 engine was not ready developed and had serious problems. Some panzer were rebuilt for fighter leaders, but kept it's view in order the enemy could not recognize it.

At last during the 50th all panzers were rebuilt to panzer 74 all with Scania engines. This panzer got a complete new more modern tower and gun. All panzers with Volvo V8 engines were rebuilt to panzer Ikv 74.

Note that the shown panzer probably is a fighter leader wagon.

Any larger more important changes compared to m/42, except tower, were not the rebuilding, rather a change of name.

Page 4


Swedish version

Panzercar m/31

Info panzer car m/31. Ref 1
Info panzer car m/31. Ref 1
Picture from Axvalla/Arsenalen ofl fm/29 now placed at Arsenalen museum. Ref 1
Picture from Axvalla/Arsenalen Pancer car fm/29 now placed at Arsenalen museum. Ref 1


Personell carrier m/31. Ref 1
Personell carrier m/31. Ref 1

Those panzer cars that were built in Sweden were rebuilt lorries from the time 1925 - 1943, except one that was built in one copy.

The biggest lorry producer round 1920 was Tidaholm. They were also known for delivering transport vehicles designed as desired. Primary fire cars and busses. In Eskilstuna there was Söderbloms Mechanical Workshop, which in the early 1900 produced vehicles for heavy transports. Tidaholm ended as a sub contractor for Bofors. Scania was on the way.

1925-1926 Panzer cars were ordered for the artillery, which ministry had produced drawings. The idea was to start with a standard Tidaholm lorry. These were rebuilt with double commando. One driver forwards and one backwards. Extensive development was going on during building of the whole series of cars. The engine power was about 35-45 ps for the petrol driven engine from Tidaholm. The three prototype cars were used up to WWII.

Now next progress came. The ministry of Artillery wanted a real panzer car. It had to be constructed from the beginning. There were ideas from an Italian artillery tractor from which design were taken from. A separate chassis was made. On this a panzer covered chariot was built. Landsverk got this order. This company had bad economics and was therefore owned by German interests. Germany had after Versailles treaty secretly produced war materials in closed lying countries.

The Swedish ministry supposed that this should be to expensive already from the beginning. Furthermore Sweden, politically in for means of defense, was facing a reduction period. It should never be war again! This panzer car was ready 1931. The car which for the time was very modern with four wheel drive double steering and a unit cost for 50000 Skr. Sweden could not afford this.

The ministry of artillery now announced  several new demands and changed the demands to start with a standard 2.5 ton lorry.  This was accepted to be temporary. A standard Volvo or Chevrolet was chosen. Bofors got the order.

As used lorries were chosen no panzer car was the other alike. This was most visible when looking at the wheel rims. The engines  were 6 cyl for both. Chevrolet had 78 ps. These cars were very bad to be driven i terrain, much because the narrow tires.

The first copies were delivered 1931. This type got the id fm/31 were for trial. The same year 30 was ordered. Up to 1939 19 were produced and 1942-43 all 30 were in service. The armament was either a 37 mm marine canon or 8 mm machine gun. Accompanying soldiers had normally rifles m/98. Later this panzer got 8 mm double mounted Bofors machine guns and 20 mm Bofors automatic canon m/40B.

Totally 32 copies were built. Several are preserved and can be seen here or at Arsenalen in Strängnäs.

Page 5


Swedish version

Panzer M/38

Typically design for cartridge. Ref 1
Typically design for cartridge. Ref 1Scania engine with 142- 162 hk. Ref 1
Scania engine with 142- 162 hk. Ref 1Double machine guns. Ref 1
Double machine guns. Ref 1



"Rikstanken" Norge


Panzer m/38. Ref 1
Panzer m/38. Ref 1

When constructing a completely new panzer. The first prototype is built of trading steel. This because it is cheaper and easier to make prototype changes.

This type of panzer was manufactured at Landsverk already 1936. At the same time Landsverk had orders for a wagon for Austria.

The remarkable construction design was that this was the first type to be fully welded. Normally producers in Europe had not the knowledge for this. Sweden can thank the inventor Gustaf Dahlen for the knowledge of welding.

Furthermore it was equipped for first time with the type of torsion invented by American Christies. The wagon had also radio and periscope.

The id was in the beginning L-60 SI/SII. They were also exported to Ireland and Hungary, before Sweden ordered this L-60-S.

For Sweden this panzer was only produced in 16 copies by Landsverk. The reason for this was that Landsverk had not any capacity and a newer panzer M/41 was on the way.

In Hungary 200 copies were built on license and they were included in battles on the eastern front. The Swedish discard panzers were sold in the 50th to the Dominican Republic. Here they were in service for a long time.

These type of countries wanted panzers mostly to be used at parades and it was not important that they were useful against an enemy.

The same thing was valid in Russia before and after the WWII and here it was a Russian panzer type T35 which often was used in parades at Red Square.

Page 6


Swedish version

Panzer 301

Info band wagon 301. Ref 1
Info band wagon 301. Ref 1
Bandvagn 301 in Vislanda for scraping. Ref 14
Bandvagn 301 in Vislanda for scraping. Ref 14Space area for soldiers in 301. Ref 1
Space area for soldiers in 301. Ref 1
Space area for soldiers in 301. Way in front cover for engine. Ref 1
Space area for soldiers in 301. Way in front cover for engine. Ref 1


Panzer wagon 301


Band wagon 301. Ref 1
Band wagon 301. Ref 1

As the modern war evaluated there was a bandwagon needed, which could bring the troops into the front line protected. They must also get transport back (the survivors).

In Sweden everything must be made as cheap as possible. There were panzers of the model  m/40 and m/41. All were out of service.

The good thing with these were the chariot. It should be rather cheap to remove the tower and build and open up the wagon and make covered room for the soldiers. The band aggregates were one of the best and dated from a panzer wagon from Czechoslovakia. This new type of panzer was called armoured personnel carrier. There were 220 copies produced of these.

Landsverk and Hägglunds got the task to present a prototype each. 1957. Then came another 3 and 7 copies 1960.

Now the wishes and demands started to affect the construction. This showed that most component started to be changed.

The first were the engines which were replaced by smaller models. Among these one from Flygmotor, which offered a boxer engine with 150 ps. This demanded that a new steering gear must be constructed.

But the main chassis was still left and also the band aggregate.

Now all started to run out of time and a serial order was given to Hägglund for 220 copies most depending on labour market demands. This became the armored personnel carrier 301. All 220 were delivered 1963.

Already 1971 this carrier was taken out of service. Spare parts started to be missing. This depends on the early main construction was from 1930th.

It had to be perfect to place this carrier on Gotland, but instead the terrain carrier M/42 were placed here.

With this solution from which there were a limited copies m/40-41 available for rebuilding. The meaning was that the M/40-41 should be a temporary solution.

Page 7


Swedish version

Panzer 302

Radioinstallation in 302. Ref 1
Radioinstallation in 302. Ref 1
Space for soldiers in 302. Ref 1
Space for soldiers in 302. Ref 1TD100 engine for 302, bus and lorries. Photo from Volvo museum. Ref 1
TD100 engine for 302, bus and lorries. Photo from Volvo museum. Ref 1



bandvagn 302


Band wagon 302. Ref 1
Band wagon 302. Ref 1

The armoured personnel carrier pbv 302 should be the ultimately solution for support on the battle ground.

With a carrier which was too narrow, too weak engine and was not equipped with the necessary parts that were needed, the soldiers intensively practiced on the training ground, time went on.

The military ministry had bought foreign models of carriers. The American M113 was the most interesting one. Landsverk and Hägglunds got requests.

It would show up that the struggle for constructions stood between M113 and Hägglund's prototypes. The army ministry made a review to rebuild M113 up to Swedish level, should be to expensive.

1961 an order for two prototypes for a new carrier and Hägglund would do the work.

After one year the two were ready. Hägglund had ordered a rebuilding of the Volvo diesel engine TD100 to a horizontal variant. It was placed under the floor in front and in this way it left good place for the soldiers. After testing the gearbox, with 8 gears and 2 low gears, were chosen. Volvo used this engine later as a bus/lorry engine.

A tower was build in which a 20 mm Hispano-Suiza automatic canon surplus from 650 scraped J29 Barrel. This was rebuild to be able for shooting 8-9 shot automatic. In every J29 there were 4 of these guns. There were lots of them.

This tower became so successful that Hägglunds could export the design.

One year of testing showed to be sufficient and an order for serial production came 1963. This short time made possible when parts from other ready developed systems were bought on the market. Parts for band aggregates came from other carrier built in large series.

1966 the deliveries started of readymade carriers and Enköping got the first wagons. It had only taken 4,5 years to construct this carrier and it showed up that this carrier was very successful.

Now when the main model started to be delivered the orders for variants came. Three carrier for battle lead, artillery lead and battery place vehicles. Parallel a tow carrier, bridge building carrier and an infantry canon carrier were built through using suitable components.

Totally delivered 516 in version for troop transport, 69 for battle lead, 48 for artillery lead and 9 battery place vehicles. Delivers went on till 1972.

In 1980 thoughts were coming up for a new version called battle vehicle 90. The 302 will be changed by a SEP wagon. 2005 it was decided that the 302 would go out of service.

First with 160 carriers, 2007 210 vehicles and before 2009 the rest of all B-versions should be out of service. Only the C-version and special version should be left up to 2018.

When inside the army decisions like this are coming one can suspect that changes will come with lifetime extension. Up to now the 302 is the end solution.


Page 8


Swedish version

Terraincar kv/42

"The white elephant" in Kongo. Ref 49
"The white elephant" in Kongo. Ref 49Version model cab. Ref 49
Version model cab. Ref 49The steering which long time missed servo steering. Ref 49
The steering which long time missed servo steering. Ref 49


Terraincar m/42

About m/42


Terraicarl kv/42. Ref 49
Terraincar kv/42. Ref 49

This type of terrain carrier was the really first trial to solve soldier transport up to the front line. It was in service already 1942. The former carriers which were tested were only prototypes.

Terrain carrier m/42 was not put out of service until 2004. Many think that it was produced by Volvo, but not quite. The carrier was built on the standard lorries for the army. 100 Volvo and 300 Scania.

The carrier was fully welded which gave large stresses in the panzer plates and also cracks. These problems were not solved until an oven was built which could take the whole chariot for soft annealing.

26 vehicles were used by different units in the  Kongo campaign 1960. During the Cyprus conflict the white painted carriers got the nickname "White Elephant".

1970 most of them were transferred to Gotland instead of the outranged pbv 301 and later 302. 11 were placed in Stockholm to reinforce the coup defense.

After the Baltic states were free some were given to them.

About the carrier.
After Wikipedia. Ref 49

Driver and chief of the vehicle were placed in the cabin, while the soldiers area had benches for 16 men placed back to back.

The transport area had panzer cover rearwards and on the sides, but lacked roof so the soldiers could shoot standing up. There was a door rearwards but the common way to enter was over the sides.

Depending on which one was the producer the KP-car got an added id as VKP (Volvo chariot panzer or SKP (Scania Chariot panzer).

The biggest difference from outside was that Scania version had a capstan on the left side. This made it possible to tow both frontwards and backwards. VKP had a fixed capstan on the right side. This gave only the possibility to tow frontwards.

1956 the carriers got weapons in the form of of a machine gun m/36 and changed for a while id to SKPF and VKPF. F stood for air protection gun. This was to separate them for those who didn't have it.

The experiences from the Kongo campaign 1960-1964 led to that plates for protection of the gunner were mounted.

1971 the remaining SKP, among other things, got new brakes before transferred to Gotland.

In the beginning of 1980 the last upgrade was when they were rebuilt with panzer roof, upgraded splitter protection, shorter rear end,  a door for unloading and reverse, servo steering and new lighting and reflexes to comply with traffic laws.

Number of soldiers to be transported was reduced to 7. Weapons were changed to two machine guns Ksp 58 and completed with smoke grenades.

For soldier transportation on battle ground there were several solutions. Tractor with trailer, cycle transports up to the bpv 301 and 302 were in full use.

This carrier was taken out of service 2004.

Page 9


Swedish version

Panzer 122 Leopard

Info Strv 122. Ref 1
Info Strv 122. Ref 1
Info Strv 122. Ref 1
Info Strv 122. Ref 1


Panzer 122

Panzer 121 in detail

Leopard 2. Strv 122. Ref 1
Leopard 2. Strv 122. Ref 1

Panzer 122 is the Swedish version of the German panzer Leopard 2. This panzer has by the magazine Discovery Channel been awarded the best main battle panzer through times.

This panzer has a tower which can be turned 360° and be focused electrically. The crew consist of 4 persons. One driver in front, one chief, one gunner and one loader in the tower.

The wagon is armed with a 12 cm canon, 2 7,62 machine guns and a battery of smoke grenades. For the canon panzer projectiles and exploding projectiles. These can combat targets up to 4000 meters distance.

There are also a CBRN-protection system which protects the crew from radioactive, biological and chemical weapons.

The gunner and the wagon chief have each other sights with stabilized sight lines. Even the gun is stabilized. This means that sight line and canon can point at the target even while driven in uneven terrain.

With the help of infrared sights the panzer 122 can be used at nighttime, at bad sight and against visually camouflaged targets.

The front part of the panzer is reinforced with protection modules both on in and outside. In front of the drivers hole, in front of tower ring, protections are mounted for panzer projectiles.

The tower is reinforced on the outside with protection modules and fighting room is covered with reinforced glass fiber plates. This will give the crew better protection against splitter.

Page 10


Swedish version

Panzer 74

Info strf 74. Ref 1

Info strf 74. Ref 1High, narrow and long time for shot. Ref 1
High, narrow and long time for shot. Ref 1


Panzer 74

Panzer 74 pics

Strv 74. Ref 1
Strv 74. Ref 1

In the beginning of the 50th a demand for a lighter armored tank came up. This was to fill the gap while waiting for the heavy KRV (later 103S) to be ready. This was because the Swedish army didn't have money to buy the French AMX.

Now a request was to look in all store rooms and see what quickly could be upgraded. Well, lots of outdated m/42 tanks. These were already when new hopeless outdated with its bad canon and underpowered engine.

This tank type was from the beginning a updated m/39 and earlier models. The designs suffered of the bureaucratic Swedish rules about weight and broadness which ruled the Swedish roads.

By this reason the hull had been high and narrow and of course hard to drive. In order to follow the politicians wish, the army said that we can change the tower and in that way get a better canon.

There were several air defense guns in store from 1937. Now the problems started. The main hull diameter was to small to make a tower in order to get place for the canon and all sub devices. The canon was set offset 300 mm and could not be balanced. It was solved by a heavy spring to compensate.

The tank became of course even higher and it was easy understood that it could turn over in forest. Before it was decided that a long canon could not be used in Swedish forests to support the infantry but this was changed when Centurion came to Sweden. From the English tank lots of solutions were stolen.

Next was the problem to turn the tower. The tank had got 2 Scania 6 cyl engines and these were just only for driving. No generator may take power for turning the tower. Therefore an ordinary VW type 1 engine and a generator given 6 Kw was mounted in a box outside the tower with it's own gasoline tank for 4 hours running.

The gun was put in position sideways by this generator and leveled vertical by the gunner. Imagine that 103S was complained not having a stabilized canon! All these old tanks were ready upgraded 1960 and the job was done at the tank works of the army.

Of course it became cheap. 360000 skr/tank. We got 3 for one Centurion. These tanks was not better than when they after 6 years were moved to second line for support.

It was just as buying cheap tomatoes which are uneatable after 3 days.

Page 11


Swedish version

Centurion 104

One Meteor engine developed from Merlin engine. Ref 1

One Meteor engine developed from Merlin engine. Ref 1One Meteor which once was named Merlin and once was the engine for Spitfires satt i alla Spitfires but then givign 2000 ps. Ref
One Meteor which once was named Merlin and once was the engine for Spitfires satt i alla Spitfires but then givign 2000 ps. Ref 1
The  AMX 13 which was imported to Sweden. Photo from former Axvalla panzer museum. Ref 1
The AMX 13 which was imported to Sweden. Photo from former Axvalla panzer museum. Ref 1
Bofors band canon which was serial produced. Ref 49
Bofors band canon which was serial produced. Ref 49KRV-wagon which ws constructed in relation with Centurion bussines. Photo from former Axvalla museum. Foto på Axvalla pansar museum. Ref 1
KRV-wagon which ws constructed in relation with Centurion bussines. Photo from former Axvalla museum. Foto på Axvalla pansar museum. Ref 1


Artillery canon wagoon Landsverk

Bofors bandcanon

Reactive panzer

Merlin engine

Centurion 102 the latest upgraded version.In front an old Merling engine. Ref 1
Centurion 102 the latest upgraded version.In front an old Merlin engine. Ref 1

The main battle tank, with a weight of 50 tons. Equipped with a petrol engine developed from the Merlin engine.

This was the tank which should be active in Sweden for over 50 years before it was out of service from Swedish defense. Yet it started as this model was not an actual panzer.

The engine which was used was a Meteor and it was developed from the famous Merlin air craft engine. On the other hand it was Packard that got the end work for development. It ended up with 2500 ps and double compressors and injection system. For Centurion it was enough with 650 ps. This was too little for a 50 ton heavy tank. Anyway it was much power at this time.

The German tank Tiger had as most 750 ps but weight over 60 ton. Compared with the Swedish 103S which got 2 engines, on 300 + 490 ps turbine. But the S tank was not an attack tank. On the other hand it is god to have power for escaping.

After this side talk about ps, it is better to start from the beginning. It didn't look liked as Sweden should get any Centurions from the start.

The army ministry asked 1950 England if it was possible to buy Centurion. The answer was that it was no possibility to deliver until 1958. This was the end after several years of investigation.

It started already directly after the war with a total stop for import of military materiel. During the war we had bought everything that were for sale.

But all investigations gave result and it was noticed that everything about tanks on the market were scrap and most irresponsible to give Swedish soldier to use.

One could not buy tanks like Sherman because they were not much better than our tank 74.

1949 the ministry was understood with what was needed. It became a new developed Centurion. But as said the answer was negative. Instead one put money on the French AMX 15 ton with a characteristic view. Negotiations started to buy 300 AMX. One tank was delivered 1952 and it was very secret.

Sweden had large trade with England and it became a trouble to get trade balance with Sweden. The English authority changed and offered us to by Centurion MKIII. In the same time the Swedish negotiators sat in Paris for AMX. This situation became a bit embarrassing for the Swedish trade organization when they had to back of.

In the same time another project started to construct heavy battle tanks in Sweden. It was called the krv project. This was extremely secret. This advanced so far that the new band unit was ready. Now this project had to be stopped when the second Centurion business was ready 1954. It was not lost money as the band unit was used for tank S and the artillery cannon. The last one was ready made later and became very expensive. Only few were produced and were placed at Boden fort.


The negotiations in England continued and it was ready in a fast manner. Sweden got 80 Centurions for 1 million Skr pro copy.

These tanks were taken from the English army stores and delivered already 1953. May be there are stevedores which remember when they were arrived and lifted out of the cargo ships in Landskrona.

It must have been a sound to remember when 80 tanks started and were driven up on the railway wagons. The transport went to Hässleholm. The id 81 meant the 7.6 cm canon.

The purchase of Centurion had let some differences in opinion around army lead. The army chief considered that the tank was good but to heavy for roads in Sweden and above all too expensive to be hold running. The commander in chief, the last to decide, General Swedlund, wanted a tank that could resist tactical atom weapons better than the light AMX. Furthermore France had bad reputations to produce military material.

About atom protection it was a believe that it was possible to be protected. In school we were taught to take cover under our school benches. Well, well!!

Swedlund won this discussion of course through a little coup when he got the defense minister support,  the bricklayer Torsten Nilsson. It was in a hurry so the government jumped over some processes.

The goal was now to, in a fast way, educate enough with crews in order to be active in the coming manaeuvre 1953. It was believed that the tank did well and a determination to buy another 160 tanks was made. These were delivered already 1955 and more were bought 1960. 1990 another 16 tanks were bought from Switzerland. They had been stored and unused. The meaning was that they should be used for development and protection.

Now Sweden had 350 Centurions and time went on and the year was 1970. Up to this year the tanks were continued developed. In the beginning there were not even radio mounted and the crew could not talk to each other. Only the tank chief could one way speak to the driver through a pipe. The canon got gyro stabilizing. The engine was changed to an American Detroit diesel with 750 ps, canon changed to 10.5 cm and as a last upgrade mounting of reactive panzer 1994.

The development of the S tank had now continued for a long time. During the whole time of 50th and 60th. The last S-tank from 290 was delivered. During 1990 the S-tank was taken out from the war organization.

But the Centurion got lifetime prolongation for the last time up to 1995. It got now reactive panzer and telephone helmets for the crew and a changed id to 104.

Now the military lead found that politicians spent to long time for decision about a new tank. Leopard 1, 2, so the army lead started to prepare a new lifetime prolongation named 105 for Centurion. But 105 was never implemented and instead were the Leopard tanks started to be delivered 1995.

Totally there were 4423 Centurion produced in all versions and sold to several countries involved in wars. Centurion took part in several war places including Vietnam, Korea and Middle East.

Page 12


Swedish version

Army motorcycle

Jawa mc. Ref 1
Jawa mc. Ref 1
Jawa mc. Ref 1

Jawa mc. Ref 1At the training field handling a JAWA machine 1960. Ref 1
At the training field in Jonkoping handling a JAWA machine 1960. Ref 1
JAWA mc in Jönköping 1960. Ref 1
 JAWA mc in Jönköping 1960. Ref 1


Jawa pictures

Jawa club


Jawa mc military,  Ref 1
Jawa mc military, Ref 1

Frantisek Janecek 1878 - 1941 was the man who created the JAWA motorcycle.

He took much influence from the middle war period. The time when all war material were produced.

After his education and the time when he learned by working at different companies in Europe, he was asked to come home to lead certain war production. Now he earned money enough to buy a factory building.

When this period was over he decided to start with motorcycles.

He bought a production license for a Wanderer motorcycle. It is no god to start with large development costs.

This motorcycle continued to bee developed up to WWII. Now Czechoslovakia was occupied and his company had to produce war material for Germany.

But he continued secretly to develop a mc and this machine should be sold after the war. It could of course end for him with his execution, but he succeeded.

After the war he had a mc ready to sell. This mc should be the main construction for all which were sold during the 50th.

Sweden had only Monark/Albin left in the military organization. The Swedish manufacturers were little interested to develop a new mc for Swedish army.

In this way JAWA got a proposal and answered yes. Frantisec died 1941 and JAWA developed their 250 and 350 cc and offered these.

The army ministry changed their demands so much that JAWA model was approved. This started a discussion between the Swedish manufacturer and army ministry. This stir up was soon cancelled. Sweden bought JAWA cycles during the whole 1950th.

I myself, have been educated on a JAWA mc in Jönköping. It was a nice mc as soon as I could get the engine to start. This means that before every training session the mc had to be started with much kicking, pushing and blowing on the spark plugs.

This could not continue and at last Monark and NV got their cycles sold. These were developed to stand Swedish boys hard handling during training.


Page 13


Swedish version

Volvo 934

Uppställning för avfart till Trängslet. Ref 1
Order for transport to Trangslet. Ref. 1


Mil. service 1960-61


Transportlast terräng 934. Ref 1
Transportlast terräng 934. Ref 1

The reveille sounded already 0600 in the summer 1960 in Jönköping. We had to prepare to be ready on the barrack square. Our company would go to Trängslätt shooting field with the entire Sound trop.

Our transport vehicle was a Volvo 934 terrain lorry. We had now almost a year driven it on our training occasions around Jönköping, Skillingaryd and Villingsberg outside Karlskoga. On the last field we had tent camp for sleeping over a month. In mars we had tent camp in Evertsberg.

It was not so much driving as we got educated military drivers. But we anyway learned all whims and how the 934 behaved.

The troop members were got training for different tasks, so sometimes if the task was to be leader one had to follow sitting in the cabin. The platform body was always covered. It was important to notice if the air compressed brakes made a hiss. Now braking was on the way. The brake drums were not always clean and the wheels easily locked. The driver must take caution with the brake pedal. Mostly we didn't have so much cargo.

Another a bit unusual solution was to activate the differential lock. It was possible to get this on all or separate axles. This was 100%. Volvo had solved this through a sliding sleeve. This was by compressed air slide over and lock the driving axles. Now it was hardly impossible to turn the steering wheel.

We also trained to put on winter chains. This was done once on all wheels. Poor 934 had to work hard and the 5 gear could not be used.

Behind the cabin on the right side there was a capstan mounted. This should once be trained with. This device had for security a sprint to save for over stressing.

At this training we had to show that we could dismantle it and of course we got a weaker one back. At one occasion we had to drive over a small water creek and to winch the lorry up a hill.

Well, the sprint should of course break. But we had driven the wrong way and never came to the changing sprint station. Out capstan winched our lorry easily upwards. But if one is lucky in one way, we had bad luck in another. When the lorry was driven over the creek with one meter water the surface was frozen. If my brain had worked I should have raised the cooler cover curtain. Now we got cooler leakage and our practice was over.

Lucky enough we got off with a fright to change to spare wheel. This could be a very hard job.

The engine was a diesel 6 cylinder with 150 ps. This was a good figure 1961. When training as group leader one could sit in the cabin. This was an advantage as the lorry had good heating.

With this 934 all cable rollers were placed out and we also brought our food from a central kitchen. The car was our salvation to move home from all places deep in the wood. The car was our mate and was handled with care.

Page 14


Swedish version

Panzer 103 S

Russian deminer. Ref 1
Russian deminer. Ref 1
Swedish trial wiat deminer rebuilt S-panzer. Ref 1
Swedish trial wiat deminer rebuilt S-panzer. Ref 1
Engine unit for panzer S. Ref 1
Engine unit for panzer S. Ref 1Differential unit for panzer S including steering brakes. Ref 1
Differential unit for panzer S including steering brakes. Ref 1Engine installation for panzer S. Ref 1
Engine installation for panzer S. Ref 1


Wikipedia 103S

Strv 103S. Ref 14
Strv 103S. Ref 14

Perhaps the Swedish tank army got their own "Nordenskiöld" who decided that the new tank could be build without a tower. This man was Sven Berge who suggested a tank without a tower to save money and weight. This happened in the beginning of the 50th.

 Earlier the army had only got rest products without any fighting value, far away when the Renault 28 was on service. Nordenskiöld was the man in the air force. He refused all old junk airplanes. 

Also he could not stand all so called "besser wisser", as von Porat wrote in his book. Only the best or nothing.

Bofors, Landsverk and Volvo established a company. They designed a hull which was called KRV and was aimed for a tower tank. 2 prototypes were build by Landsverk.

At Landsverk which was an early company after Thulinverken. Here a person worked which had past times at Thulinverken. Per Weiertz He had constructed the last car, Type B 1926.

Now he got the task to design the gearboxes for the coming Panzer S and it's steering gears.

This was going to be very expensive and Berge who had his working place in the army stab suggested that they could build a tank without a tower.

This should be cheaper and a less heavy tank. But there were several problems that must be solved. All in the leading group put their hope in this tank design.

1958 Bofors got an order to design a prototype. With the 2 tanks build by Landsverk, Bofors designed a very unconventional tank without a turning tower.

You should also know that from the beginning several foreign conventional tanks stood on the list. It was American M60, the German Leopard 1 and the French AMX.

The air force had succeeded so good with the fully Swedish designed fighters. We were not members of Nato and had to pay all by ourselves. Why could not the tank designers in Sweden do that too and be independent of foreign countries. May be the army commanders had this in mind. In any case this suggestion was victorious. The Sven Berge suggestion.

Remember also that in the beginning of 50th the stabilized canon was not yet possible to use. Sweden needed for it's defense a tank not in the first place for attaching nor to stop attacks. It should be good to stand hidden, be difficult to see and destroy.

For this the 103S was extraordinary good. This tank had several good advances. Several "besser wisser" tried to give this type bad reputations without knowing that it should be used for what it was build for. 103S became though not perfect at once. 3 versions were build, even a 4th called D, but was cancelled when decision 1995 to buy Leopard 2 came. 

Now the development had come so far that the only thing that was missing were a stabilized canons and more power, but during 20 years the 103S succeeded to scare the enemies when they planed for an invasion of Sweden.

A tank that no canon at that time could penetrate the front because of its low profile, sloping armor and with the last version the high speed. But development and upgrading had been cheaper if money had been put on the tower KRV.


Page 15


Swedish version

Crash place for allied bomber 1944

Remember mark at Hojalen. Ref 48

Remember mark at Hojalen. Ref 48Upprensninge efter kraschen. Ref 48
Cleaning work after the crash. Ref 48
Närbild minnemärke. Ref 48

Close up picture of remmber mark. Ref. 1
The place for air bomber crash. Ref. 48
The place for air bomber crash. Ref. 48


The big fly night

Remember mark

Höjalen Vittsjö

To be seen in Vittsjö

English site


Minnesmonument Höjalen. Ref 48
Remembering monument Höjalen. Ref 48

Formulated after vittsjobjarnum.nu. Ref 48

This monument in Vittsjö is a tragical happening from WWII. At this time a fully loaded Lancaster bomber crashed into Höjalen forest with 9000 litrs petrol and 5 tons of bombs. This destroyed the aircraft and crew on the 29th of August 1944.

Two third of a propeller is mounted as a remembering mark at Höjalen in the forrest after the road Vittsjö Skånes - Värsjö a forrest walking path lead to the crash place about 400 m south. Look for a sign.

It was the last year of WWII as British bombers flow north Denmark and then over Sweden south to north of Germany.

During hazy and dark evenings for several weeks up to 600 bombers came flying to bomb Germany.

As Denmark was occupied by Germany troops and often returning and damaged bombers flow back over neutral Sweden.

Probably the Swedish the air defense did not fired against the British aircrafts, if unlikely it was done only with exercise ammunition. Swedish defense was bound to get an end of the war as fast as possible.

A likely occurrence is the following.
This current bomber, a four engine Lancaster, had probably left the target area without dropping the cargo over Germany. This because of German night fighters.

One of these followed over Sweden which was not common. The Lancaster was first observed over Röke and then by the observation tower in Brunshult, when a German night fighter attacked it and fired against the bomber. About one possible occurrence read the English site. It is not easy to understand the bombers way.
Read the English site.

Side rudder was perforated and later found three kilometers from the crash place. The bomber was for this impossible to handle, or the pilot was injured from the bullets?.

Close before crash the the plane let some of its cargo to go. These craters was found and identified 2006.

Over Höjalens forest the Lancaster had so low height that the wings started to cut the forest. The trees were cut for 100 meter, before the plane crashed against a small hill.

The explosion was tremendous and and intensive light could be seen over the dark sky, 23.10 hour. Precise information can be seen at the Folk museum in Vittsjö papers which they have got from Swedish Defense.

All crew men are buried in Pålsjö funeral yard outside Helsingborg.

Today the crater is still left after this war incident. Often there are flowers in place as memory.


Other Cars MC museums in this website

Adalen car museum
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Arvika car mc museum
Assa car museum
AUDI Ingolstadt

Barnfind Halsingland
Barnfind Katrineholm
Brosarp Museistation
Bjorkenas mopedmuseum
Brooklands England
Bugatti 2000
Bugatti 2018
Beaulieu England
Bynanders Car MC
Car sport museum Karlskrona
Chaparral carmuseum
Duxford England
Dalén musem
Eds Motorcycle museum
Enoch Thulin Landskrona
Falkoping MC Museum
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Garage round in Halsingland
Grangesberg Nostalgi
Grafors Collection
Grangesberg Locos
Hannover air museum
Hassleholm mil. vehicles
Holmgren VW collection
Haynes England
Hjorted Mopedmuseum
Harnosand carmuseum
Huskvarna museum
Ivar Car museum Hoting
Koping car museum
Krylbo-Norbergs rail
My Vehicles
Malmkoping mil. vehicle museum
Malmo Technical museum
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Mercedes Benz 2018
MC-Collection Sweden
MC museum Hedemora
Motala museum
Munktell museum
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Otto Walz 2018
Outbordmuseum Varb.
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Porsche 2018
Rydaholms Car Museum
Robot Museum Sweden
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Panzeranzer museum
ScaniaVabis museum
Sinsheim museum 2000
Sinsheim museum 2018
Skokloster car museum
SSK Boxcar
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Svedino car & airplane
Soderhamn Air Force
Sparreholm museum
Sagen Technical museum
Surahammar MC
Swedish Air force museum
Swedish submarines
Torsong MC museum
Torsby Car MC museum
Technical museum Helsinb
Technical museum Stockholm
Ullared carmuseum
Volvo Industrial museum

Other sites
Military service
Travels (in Swedish)
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Trainmuseum Sweden
Vasteras Airmuseum
Hagfors Industrimuseum
Karlskrona Marina

Links for other military sites in this website.
Pansarmuseum SwedenBrooklands museum England Duxford museum England
Sinsheim Air part  Robot museum Sweden  Soderhamns Air museum

Thulinroom Landskrona Svedino Flygmuseum  Hassleholm vehicle museum  Malmkoping vehicle museum Hannover Latzen Air museum  Swedish Submarines  Malmo Technical, sub

Pictures from the following owners have been used in
bjorns-story.se with the necessary agreements:   
Reference 1: ©Björn Bellander   bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 14: ©Pansarmuseum Axvalla
Reference 15: ©Hedemora Diesel

Reference 48: From webbsite
Reference 49: ©Picture from Wikipedia
Webbsida som avhandlar Pansarmuseet i Axvalla

© Copyright Björn Bellander 2006-