Walkiing between the fair halls. Ref 1
Walkiing around the fair halls. Ref 1
Air museum Hannover Germany
Pictures from visit at Hannover fair 2001
Back Official website  Swedish version 16 pages
See also Engines Bierstube
since 060105
Updated
2017-12-13

© Björn Bellander
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Lufahrtmuseum Laatzen i Hannover is a typical Geraman museum, founded by Günter Leonhardt. This museum collect many things from WWII. In Germany they are very proud of what was produced in airplanes, vehicles, marine devices. Above all their battleships and submarines, they have great feelings for. This museum has concentrated on aircrafts and many of the planes on stand has been fetched from Norway. The Junkers airplanes which sank in a fjord 1944. I have read facts for my text in Wikipedia. About Fokker from his book "The Flying Dutchman" and common knowledge.
MesserschmidtSpitfireFocke-Wulf FW 190Mig 15Junkers F13Hans GradeSopwith Camel
Ryan M2 NYDNieuport 17SailplaneYak 18Horvath IIIBalloonghamperFokker EIIIFokker TriplaneFokker StieglitzLinks
Page 1
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Swedish version

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Messerschmidt BF109 G2
 

In one corner is there a crashed Meseschmidt engine block.. Ref 1
In one corner is there a crashed Meseschmidt engine block. Ref 1
Info about Messerschmidt. Ref 1

Info about Messerschmidt. Ref 1

Links

Willy Messerschmidt

Bf-109

BF-109 in Norway

 

 Messerchmidt BF-109 G2. Ref 1
 
Messerschmidt Bf-109 G

This famous fighter was produced during the time 1935-1945 for more than 35000 copies. All were equipped with Mercedes DB605 12 cyl. V-engine, which was placed with the valves faced downward. Look at the exhaust pipes.

Most power was reached with 2000 ps. Se alo my text about Mercedes museum. Me109 was produced mainly in Regensburg, Hungary and several more places.

The guns was in Spitfire placed in the wings. One model of Bf-109 had a gun in the propeller centrum, but normally upon the engine in front of pilot.

The gun in propeller centrum  was able because the propeller was driven through a gear and not direct from the crankshaft. this arrangement was not good and only used for a short time.

This plane flew on all fronts and had only Focke-Wulf 190 as it's superior. When P51-Mustang came in use, only FW-190 could give it a match.

Last monnths 1945, 2969 Messerschmidt planes were produced.

At this time the Me-262 was ready and flying but the war was almost over. One website about the development of Me-109.

Bf-109 was produced in several countries among them Czechoslovakia and Spain even after the war. Thanks to the movie Battle of Britain there are several airplanes left.
 
All interested airplane freaks, now look here how the last version of Me-109 G looked like.

Note for example that the compressor had got a larger diameter, therefore it is a swelling on the side of engine cover.

Notice also that the engine is mounted upside down. The crankshaft is on the upper side. Inside the little window just behind the pilot you find the petrol tank.

Not also that the landing gears are let down from outside in. This is not the common way. In an interesting article about the Air museum of Israel  you can see Bf-109.


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Swedish version

Supermarine Spitfire


Info about Spitfire. Ref 1
Info about Spitfire. Ref 1

Links

Spitfire

Pictures

Short story

  One late model of Spitfire. Note the propeller.  Ref 1
 
History of Swedish Spitfires

Now we have reached 1945 after the end of the war. Sweden was on the way with J29 and a version for reconnaissance.

Although the whole program for J29 was late and the reconnaissance version should not be delivered that after the fighter version 1955. Developing programs are always late. Up to 1955 a substitute was needed.

The possibility to buy used Spitfire planes by this type for a very low price in England. Sweden bought 50 copies. These were equipped with the latest engine Griffon with 2050 hp, and highest flying altitude of 14000 m and could reach 735 km/h. The plane was not armed but equipped with 3 cameras. All these flew with preinstalled exposure figures.

With this plane Sweden was far ahead of the surrounding states. Even Russia had not yet come so far. They could not stop the Swedish spy photographing over the Baltic states and Kola regions.

This was done till Soviet had developed fighters and robots in the early 50th. As a luck Swedish Air Force stopped in time but continued to fly outside the borders of the Baltic states with DC3 and Catalina against, I suppose, the Russians  paid the early spying by shooting down two of these.
 
This plane had the identification name of MKXIX and was equipped with a five blades prop made of wood. All Spitfires had this construction and even the remaining 40, which today still are flying have wood props. Although to be mentioned that certain high speed development types had props of metal. This was for to test speeds near the sound limit.

No original reconnaissance planeare left but many late Spitfires look just alike. When J29 arrived 1955 all remaining S31 were scraped and the museum had no S31 on display.

1982 a museum enthusiast was able to buy one from Canada. It was in principle a scrap heap of a MKXIX. This plane was produced early in 1945 and was in service at RAF between 1945 and 1951. It was sold to India where it as time went on was put in India Air Force Museum. 1971 it was bought by a pilot organization in Canada.

This was near the end of this copy if it not had been bought for Sweden. In an extensive change business, Sweden succeeded to buy it, but it was a costly bargain.

For one DC3, one J34, one AD-4 Skyraider and 2 1/2 A32 Lance, Sweden got a MKXIX which lacked engine, the bubble hood, instrument dashboard, and complete landing gears.

Compare this what Biltema got for the 14 millions Skr that Biltema paid for their complete renovated copy, okay only a MKXVI. Those who by coincidence have visited the Historical Collection of Cars in Koping Sweden may have seen the MKXIX dashboard.

1955 all S31 in Sweden ended their active service in Swedish Air Force. Several planes were used for the target of practice shootings, the rest were scraped.

With a sentence by the General secretary of FN about executions in Bosnia: "It was a sad time".
 


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Swedish version

Focke-Wulf FW190

Photo of the engine. Note BMW-mark inside the engine fan. Ref 1
Photo of the engine. Note BMW-mark inside the engine fan. Ref 1
Drawing of the engine. Ref 1
Drawing of the engine. Ref 1Info about third Focke-Wulf. Ref 1
Info about third Focke-Wulf. Ref 1

Links


RW development

Focke-Wulf

Focke-Wulf II

Focke-Wulf history

Focke-Wulf Ta183

Focke-Wulf Huckbein

One Focke-Wulf built from a wreck fetched in sea outside Italy.  Ref 1
 
Focke-Wulf  FW190

The name Focke-Wulf comes from the 2 designer Heinrich Focke and George Wulf. They started already in the beginning of 1920 to build aeroplane in a basement in Bremen. This was of course not allowed because of the Versailles treaty.

But for Germany it was all in line with the statement that "German air force was not dead their spirit was still alive".

FW-190 was manufactured during the period 1939-1945. It was equipped with for Germany manner unusual engine. A 14 cyl. BMW 801, air cold star engine with best power output of 1700 ps, highest speed of 685 km/h. It was in service from 1941.

The airplane had extraordinary good qualities and was superior the English Spitfire till they got the1943 Spitfire XII. The model was mostly used on the eastern front.

It was strong an could with advantage also be used as a light bomber.

Production figures was over 25000 ex.

See also this link over preserved Focke-Wulf fighters. You can order (2007) a replica at Flug Werk GMBH.

The 2 rows 14 cylinders variant is a development of the BMW 132-engine. This engine was later developed to fit for among others in Focke-Wulf 190. It gave as best over 2000 hp.

The constructor Kurt Tank suggested to use it in an air fighter. It was unusual at that time for a star engine in these kind of airplanes. BMW succeeded to minimize the frontal area by a fan just behind propeller for cooling of engine.

In this way it became a success. It is possibly to study the design of engine behind the propeller. See enlargement of picture.

The compressor was of a single type and used two stages design directly driven by the engine.

BMW had developed a hydraulic system to automatic give variable amount of petrol, propeller angle and ignition according to throttle level and altitude.

This made it much easier to control the engine. It was a design that far later used for our computer controlled engines.

Externally one cannot do anything else than admire the skill of craftsmanship that was demanded for all plates and pipes in the prototypes.
 


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Swedish version

Mig 15

Air inlet for the engine. Ref 1
Air inlet for the engine. Ref 1

Links

Mig 15

Pictures

Fighter Mig 15

Rolls Royce Nene


Rolls Royce Avon

Pulqui II
 

Mig 15. Ref 1
 
After WWII the Rusians had problem with their air force. During the war they had not time to develop new aircrafts and the thing with jet engine was almost unknown.

This was an empty knowledge which was bound to be changed. Countries around were working on new jet airplanes one after another. Furthermore there were late models of propeller planes which could fly higher and faster than corresponding russian planes.

During around one year Sweden took the advantage to make spy flying over Kola peninsula with the last model of Spitfire. The Swedish Air Force had bought the last model  of Spitfire. With this airplane it could fly both faster and higher than the Russian resistance could do. But it didn't lasted so long before it was to dangerous. Remember the US spy flights which was shot down by a robot.

After WWII the Russians took as war indemnity drawings for all of latest developments from Germany. It was the Focke-Wulf  Ta 183 with the nickname Huckbein. Behind this was the engineers Kurt Tank and Hans Multhopp. This project in Germany was to late and it was only a prototype made before end of war.

Note. Kurt Tank emigrated after the war to Argentina. Here he developed his "Huckbein" to a fighter plane which looked like the coming Mig 15. It got the name Pulqui. This project was given up when Juan Peron was dethroned. Argentina instead bought F-86 Sabre.

From this development of Huckbein Messersmidt had a sinilar one which was used in Sweden for the J29 Barrel and got an English jet engine Ghost from deHavilland. This compny was the new one birthed from the rests of Sopwith Aviation after WWI.

BMW which was synonymous to Focke-Wulf also had jet engines which were used in Messerschmidt 262. The Russians brought all this to their workshops outside Moscow.

At the Mikoyan factories they had already a prototype of Mig 8 and Mig 9. But they could not produce jet engines powerful enough.  Those they had were copies from German BMW 003 and Junkers 012. which had been used in 262 plane. Now Mikoyan made a prototype of the new Mig 15.

 

Mikoyan Gurevich got to know that England, may be, could sell a licence for Rolls Royce Nene engine. Sweden bought also a licence for Nene which was developed.

In Russia the one that made the descisions was Josef Stalin and Mikoyan must get his permission to start negotiations with the English. Stalin didn't believe that this was possible and is said to have answered "What fool will sell us those secrets".

On the spot. Mikoyan flew to London and it showed that he could get a license and 25 engines. This concession may be due to that Rolls Royce had a new development  for the next Avon engine. So the Russian could get the old Nene. This engine was then developed by the Russian engineer Klimov.

Now Mikoyan speeded up the work and quickly copied the English Nene and it was mounted in the Mig 15.

Mig 15 was delivered to the wings already 1949 and was of course a success. This fighter was constructed for serial production.

The first export was to China and North Korea. Here this fighter became a hard adversary for US aircrafts used.

Several bombers were shot down and P51 and the first US jet F84 Shooting Star had problems to defend themselves against the Mig 15. America was bound to go over to night bombings in North-Korea. Not until they got F86 Sabre and F104 Starfighter they turned the Mig 15 superiority.

Mig 15 was built in all east countries and also India, China and Vietnam. It is not for sure known, but about 12000 copies were built in Russia and totally 18000 Mig 15. A developed model came with Mig 17 1965. Later a Supersonic model came with Mig 19. The last Mig was Mig 21 Fishbed. Such a plane was place as eye attraction outside a galleria in the city of Arboga Sweden.

This fighter got a sad end when two artist got the task to make a peace sculpture of this plane. The result may not be in place for as long time as th original Mig-21.

Why not instead visit the nice Robotmuseet, which you can find along the old drive through.

Yuri Gagarin, the first astronaut was killed when he piloted a Mig -15 1968.


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Swedish version

Junkers F13

Info Junkers F 13. Ref 1
Info Junkers F 13. Ref 1

Links

Junkers Ju-52

Sinsheim museum

Svedino museum




 


 

Junkers F13. Note that the windshield is missing. Ref 1
 
The picture shows the first model of Junkers passenger plane.

Produced first time 1936. BMW 132 powered 725 ps and max speed of 264 km/h. Total production was 5500.

The first version, 1931, had only one engine and the pilots was forced to crawl through the cabin window from the front. A small "Brookland window" was put in front to prevent the engine oil to hit the pilots.

You can see such a plane at the picture, just behind the exhibition fair of Hannover.

This museum also put in money to take home 4 Ju-52 that was sunk in the Norwegian fjord outside Narvik.

You can get an interesting video from this mission. After the war several 100 was produced in Spain where Germany during the civil war had tested it through war material help for Franco.

The aircraft also was used by the German paratroops to invade Crete. Max Schemling once the world heavy weight champion jumped out of such a plane and survived the war.


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Swedish version

Hans Grade

Info about Hans Grade. Ref 1

Info about Hans Grade. Ref 1This show a Hans Grade machine, though he is not the pilot. Ref från ett forum.
This show a Hans Grade machine, though he is not the pilot. Ref från ett forum.


Links

Johannistahl

Hans Grade

Grade Outboard engine

Pictures


 


 

The aviation pioneer plane of Hans Grade. Ref 1
 
Hans Grade. Ref 49Hans Grade was an aviation pioneer from  Magdeburg. 1879- 1946. Here he practiced and developed the art to fly "heavier than air". For this purpose he constructed an engine. It was two stroke V4 aircold and gave 20 ps.

This plane, see picture, he succeeded as the first pilot in Germany to take the plane flying i an 8 circle. This was the rules to win the Lanz-Preis, also that it had to be bought/built in Germany and piloted by a German The engine must be built in Germany.

It was the Lanz-Preis which gave him 40000 marks 1909.

Note the early propeller construction. Lying under is a more modern variant. From this plane he succeeded to sell 80 copies. In this bargain the buyer also got a short course how to fly.

This plane model was also the first one to transport post in Germany.

Hans Grade was good at everything and was engaged with many things. All his idéas started in his company.

After the Lanz-Preis win he started a new firm. Tough he didn't survive with this after WWI. Instead he started to produce cars.

Hans Grade Auto. Ref 491921 he presented a rather modern car. it had a two strike engine , 800 cc and 16 ps. It could reach a maximum speed of 80 km/h. He produced 1000 copies up to 1928 when he was forced to cease the production.

Before WWII he started to work at different airplane production companies as an development engineer.


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Swedish version

Sopwith Camel


Info about Sopwith Camel. Ref 1
Info about Sopwith Camel. Ref 1
Sopwith Camel. Ref 49

Sopwith Camel. Ref 49Sopwith Pop. One of Biggles books.  Ref 1
Sopwith Pop. One of Biggles books. Published 1932. Ref 1
Early Biggles. One of my Biggles books. Ref 1
Early Biggles. One of my Biggles books. Published 1935. Ref 1

Links

Sopwith Camel

Sopwith Pup

Sopwith Triplane

Sopwith Fighter

Sopwith History

About Sopwwith

The English fighter Camel during WWI, but marked with French id. and equipped with Frenc engine. Ref 1
  
The Camelplane was difficult to fly for new pilots. But if they could handle this it was superior against the enemies at the western front 1917.

But there was one that was the best. Biggles. All boys' idol in the end of 1940. Captain W.E. Johns was the author of this book which helped Sweden to love our air force.

W.E. Johns was born 1893. He was active during WWI, but was caprtured and was war prison. From there he flew 1918 and decided instead to become an author. His first book "The Camels are coming" 1932. He wrote 102 books before his dead 1968. The picture on the book is a fictive picture of a fighter from 1914-15.

Sopwith

In England there was a company Sopwith Aviation and Herbert Smith was designer. This was the conditions for this time to produce successful fighters.

Their first model was Sopwith Pup. From the beginning it was a private plane for their test pilot Harry Hawker. It was developed till "the Pup" with a 70 ps Clerget engine 1916.

The problem for all planes was that no enough powerfull engine was available. This was a demand to make it fighting capable enough. This is discovered in all the models that were built. Single wings, double wings and tripple wings. 1915. Futhermore the use of aileron just has begun to be used instead of wing wrapping to control the flight.

Synchronized guns.

This was another important thing which was solved during 1915. The possibility to control the gun in order to shoot through the propeller. Till now the guns where placed upon the upper wings, if a biplane. Even earlier 1914 the pilot shot at the enemies with a pistol by hand or with a movable gun, as the picture, or by a gunner. To be alone and shot was a problem with controlling the plane.

The story to shoot through the propeller started with a French plane Morane Saulnier. This plane coluld do it. Rolando Garros instead got engine problems and landed behind the German lines 1915. (Compare name of tennis stadium in Paris).

He had covered the propeller (Ref 49) with a reflecting plate, which should prevent the shot to destroy the propeller. One kind of a doubtful construction. It was also shown that his propeller was destroyed.

Picture how Fokker solved the machine gun shooting steering. Ref 49Anthony Fokker in Germany took the task to solve this problem. He syncronized the gun with the engine propeller rotation. By a small lever got an impuls from the engine and the gun was fired. The impuls was taken from the crankshaft. This invention was first mounted on a Fokker EIII 1915 monoplane. Picture. (From The Flying Dutchman). The solution was necessary for this type with single wings.

This could be kept secret for 6 months, when a German plane landed behind French lines.

Now the allied had the last practical solution for fighting planes. The gun was moved in front of the pilot. The disadvantage was that the muzzle flame made the pilot blind for some seconds.

It was only the less powered engines left. One solution was to give the planes a larger wing area. It became the triplane which Herbert Smith was first to introduce. This gave the plane extraordinary possibilities to turn, make loopings and climb quickly.

New airplanes.

Sopwith Aviation now quickly produced their Triplane. For this plane they used much from the earlier Pup. This plane became a success when it was used on the wings in France 1917. Sopwith Pup could now be withdrawn from the front in order to defend London from german bombings by Gohta plane.

The progress now went quick. It was just like frog jumping between the German and Allied constructions. News came several times a year. Sopwith had already 1916 a new model ready, Camel, and the power was up till 130 ps.

The engine was changed and engine cylinders was made by aluminum. Double Vickers guns was placed in front of the pilot which was common with biplanes The airplane had a remarkable construction, where the lower wings were angled 3° upwards. It is said that this was just to simplify the construction. I think that it was good for landing on fields with high grass. It gave a better free level. See Tiger Moth. This plane had big troubles before the engineer found the right angles.

This type of plane was the leader on the western front and was a very dread enemy. The Moth had their opponents in Fokker DR1. But soon in the beginning of 1918 came Fokker DVII (Ref 49) with 180 ps Mercedes engine. Then the war ended before Fokker DVIII (Ref 49) was delivered to the wings with it's 196 ps engine.


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Swedish version

Nieuport 17

Info about Nieuport 17. Ref 1

Info about Nieuport 17. Ref 1
Nieuport IVB-G at Swedish Air Force museum. Ref 1
Nieuport IVB-G at Swedish Air Force museum. Ref 1
 

Links

Nieuport 17

Pictures

Nieuport fighter

Nieuport 28

Spad XIII

The "American Expinary Corps" was assigned Nieuport 17  Ref 1
 
The firm Nieuport was established 1902 in France by two brothers producing aircraft engines, but they changed to build airplanes instead.

The shown model with number 17 was a development of the 11 th. The plane got a stronger engine with 110 ps, larger wings and reinforced. later it became an even stronger engine with 130 ps.

Upper and lower wings were offset from each other along side. The lower wings were angled upwards.

This is a construction which Sopwith used for their Camel.

In the beginning the gun were placed upon the upper wings. They also tested 2 guns but it gave the plane worse qualities. When the Fokker gun solution became known for synchronized guns thy were placed in front of the pilot.

The American Expeditionary Forces was equipped with Nieuport planes. In the middle of 1917, the Nieuport model was getting old fashion and could easily be defeated.

The disadvantage was depending on that the German planes had a 6 cylinder in line engine with over 150 ps. Now Nieuport released a new updated version 17bis. At the same time Sopwith Camel came and took over the lead.

The serial number for Nieuport grew rapidly and reached 28 when war ended 1918.

The firm was reorganized several times until the engineer Schneider took over.

Schneider considered himself to be the owner of synchronized guns patent and fought with Anthony Fokker for a long time about this.

After Schneider came Gustavo Delage in as constructor and now things happened. Note he has nothing to do with the car Delage. Now the market saw Nieuport 10 and 11 and these planes became common in France.

The gun was placed upon the upper wing but it gave some difficulties to change magazines. Later the gun was placed on the side of the  body. During these hectic times airplanes were developed and changed every 6th month.

Nieuport 28 and Spad XIII became the planes which AEF (American Expeditionary Forces) got when the production of a better type SPAD XXIII was not enough.

After the war the Nieuport firm went backwards and lost it's designer Delage.

Nieuport in Sverige

Sweden had when the air force was founded 1926 only 9 fighters of the type Phönix strongly worn and old fashioned.

The first chief for air force was K.M. Amundsen ordered 1925, without having the money for 17500 skr/copy, 10 copies of Nieuport 29C1. They got the Swedish id J2. For this it became some discussions but what to do?

This plane had good flying abilities. but didn't fit into the Swedish climate when it was fully built of wood. The wings fell of by themselves because of the temperature differencies.

Already 1930 they were out of use and despite big trials to keep them flying they had to be scraped. Both of the early Nieuports were out of service 1918 and 1919.


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Swedish version

Spirit of St Louis
Ryan M2 NYP

The Lindberg plane from another view. Ref 1
The Lindberg plane from another view. Ref 1Info about Chales Lindbergs plane. Ref 1
 
Info about Chales Lindbergs plane. Ref 1

Links
 

Copy of Charles Lindbergs plane. Ref 1
 
No comments.  

Page 10

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Swedish version

Sailplane



Links




 


 

Tyska gliders. Ref 1
 
No comments.  

Page 11

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Swedish version

Yak 18

Info about JAK 18. Ref 1
Info about JAK 18. Ref 1
Yak 18T at  Roll Out in Västerås 2007. Ref 1

Yak 18T at Roll Out in Västerås 2007. Ref.1
Yak 52 at Roll Out in Västerås 2007. Ref 1
Yak 52 at Roll Out in Västerås 2007. Ref 1Yak ?? at Roll Out in Västerås 2013. Ref 1
Yak ?? at Roll Out in Västerås 2013. Ref 1Yak 18T at Roll Out in Västerås 2013. Ref 1
Yak 18T at Roll Out in Västerås 2013. Ref 1

Links

Alexander Yakovlev

Yak 1


Yak 15

Yak 18

Yak 30-48

 


 

JAK 18 engine. Ref 1
 
Alexander Sergeyvich Yakovlev 1906 - 1989. He was born in Moscow and his father was working at The Nobel Brother oil firm. He started Yakovlev design bureau.

He started his activities in the 1920 th, but the activity was not on acceptable level until 1930.

During his education time 1919-1921 he had work as a messenger boy at Nobel.

This mission rendered him a job at the Military Academy. At this school they had an task to construct a sailplane.

But his goal was to apply for admission as pupil at the academy, but he was denied as he had not enough merits as a proletarian. This didn't stop him and he constructed 10 different planes during the years of  1927- 1933.

He got admission at the academy 1927 and was examined 1931. After this he was placed at air factory number 39. Here he became chief designer. He started Yakovlev design Bureau 1956-1985.

During WWI he was hired by Josef Stalin as vice air minister 1940-1946

As designer he had great capacity for military aviation and his number series which started with Yak 1 and ended far over Yak 100. The most important models were Yak 1, Yak 15 and Yak 18. After the war all sorts of aviations. Helicopters, passenger planes Yak 42, bomb planes Yak 28.

Developed model of Yak 15 - Yak 17. Ref 49Yak 15 was the first jet plane for which the Junkers 004 engine was used. Yak 30. Ref 49Later 1950 a rival for Yak 30, Mig 15 took the lead. Yak was not ready in time. Yak 30 had a licence built Licence built Rolls Royce Derwent. Ref 49Rolls Royce Derwent engine and later the Nene engine.

Klimow V12 motor forl Yak 1 and others. Licence from  Hispano Suiza. Ref 49About his constructions.  Yak 1 - 9 were one of the most important planes during WWII. The models started their Yak 9. Ref 1career 1940 with a V12 Klimow engine , which gave 1180 to 1260 ps. This engine was a licence building from Hispano Suiza. This plane was active in the beginning of the Korean War.

The great production, which he was alone with in Russia were different kind of training planes. The model which lived the longest time, was during the whole 1930 th and far in on 1950. This was Yak 18.

Later in the 1950 different models for competition aviation and smaller passenger transports. Look at pictures seen at Roll Out in Västerås with serial number 52 and upwards.

Yak UT was the first trainer version and was presented already 1936. 18A trainer was produced in China and can be recognized for the broken wing.

There were even models produced in Polen  which got a passenger cabin for up to 4 persons. Yak 11 was activ as a bomber in the Korean war.

Yak 11. Rebuilt to one placed. Ref 49A nice distinguished  sign is the cylinder cooling cover in the front of the star engine. When the planes is parked it is always closed. This give the plane a significant look.

Yakovlev retired 1984 and died 1989. Buried in Moscow.


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Swedish version

Horvath III

Info about Horvath III. Ref 1
Info about Horvath III. Ref 1

Links

Aeroplane on stand in Bratislava



 


 

Horvath III. Ref 1
 
Ernö Horvath worked for profession as teacher in mathematics and physics. He was among the first in Hungary who was interested in aviation questions.

May 1910 he had built his first plane and the same year he updated it and also built his second plane. With this he won 1910 at International Air Fair a special price  given by Bratislava Hungury.

More updated he presented his Horvath III "Schwalbe, from which 10 copies were built. This plane was much a copy of the Bleriot first design. This Schwalbe III was the first plane that flow over Adriatic Sea.

The third version  of the Horvath "Swallow" 1912 had an engine with 25 ps build by Daimler. From the beginning it was designed by Ferdinand Porsche who worked at Daimler works.

Porsche was also working at Lohner in Vienna. Here he developed electrical engines mounted inside the wheels of the vehicle.

The Swallow could reach a speed of 80 km/h. The measures were: Span: 37' 9", Length: 30' 10". Weight empty: 573 lbs

Horvath stopped building airplanes 1913 and instead took interest in design, drawings and education. He had earlier in an air accident been badly hurt and stopped to test his own constructions.

In connection with this accident he wrote a fly aerodynamic and fly technical book. This book became the manual for future aviation engineers and pilot education.

The plane which is on stand under the roof in the museum is a copy of the original which was destroyed in a fire. There is no original plane left in the world. The one which can be seen i Bratislava is also a copy as the original was destroyed by a bomb during WWII.


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Swedish version

Balloonhamper


Info about baloon korbs. Ref 1
Info about baloon korbs. Ref 1
 
Links

 

WWI the military thought mucj upon baloon flying. Ref 1
 
In the early 1900 all flying was done with balloon hampers. The most important with this was reconnaissance for artillery lead.

Naturally the military saw no other way as they had extensive thoughts about this use.

During WWI it was very common to have balloons for reconnaissance. These were very easy to be shot down but it was also dangerous for the pilot as the balloon was equipped with machine guns.

The fighter planes flew beside the balloon and shot with hand held weapons to puncture the balloon. It was not good to just make some holes in the carrying ballon.

The pilot must get the gas to go on fire. It was not so easy because the crew had  very powerful machine guns.


Page 14

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Swedish version

Fokker EIII
Fokker Eindecker

Anthony Fokker. Ref 49

Anthony Fokker. Ref 49Fokker Johanistal "Spin Fokker". Ref 49
Fokker Johanistal "Spin Fokker". Ref 49Testing a gun breaker. Ref 49
Testing a gun breaker. Ref 49Fokker patent drawing. Ref 48
Fokker patent drawing. Ref 48Gun breaker diagram.  Ref 48
Gun breaker diagram. Ref 48Airco DH 2. Ref 1
Airco DH 2. Ref 1FE2b. Ref 49
FE2b. Ref 49RAF SE2a. Ref 49
RAF SE2a. Ref 49

Links

Anthony Fokker

About Anthony Fokker

Fokker M.5

Fokker Eindeckers

Fokker WWI aircrafts

Syncronisation gears

More about synkronisation

Franz Schneider

Oberursel motors

Fokker Aircraft of World War One

Airco DH.2

 


 

Fokker EII the next after EI. Ref 1
 
Anthony Fokker 1890 - 1939

In Indonesia a Dutch farm owner Herman Fokker owned a coffee farm. Here a boy was born named Anthony.

The time for Anthony at Kediri in Indonesia, was not long. At three years of age, the family moved back to Holland and the cause was that their children should get education in Holland.

Antohny had no head for reading. He liked much better to work with mechanicas and alike. The family who had a good economic status didn't do anything to guide the boy instead he was allowed to run free.

One of his projects he was working with was to do trials for a spring system for a car wheel. The idéa was to get a car without tires. This was because tires at this time often get puncture. His fathers car was the trial object.

This lasted till father Herman got tired of this and sent Anthony to Germany at Bingen Technical school 1910. He stayed here only a short time before he moved to Technical Fachschule am Mainz.

But "Thony" dis just what he liked, but anyway he had a goal. He built and developed airplanes in his study room. This came so far that he rented a hangar place near by. At this place all who had the goal to fly, were gathered, and eventually win a prize.

After many failures and much money from the family he succeeded with a plane named Fokker in his first plane. Ref 49Spinn. From this he built and updated in three versions. With this plane he educated for pilot licence. He succeeded from the last version to sell 50 copies for the German army 1910.

He flow with this plane back to the Netherlands to advertise and earn some money by making exhibition flyings.

Now had had made himself a working place in life. This place should be near the decision place for the German army and their air force ambitions. This was Berlin and Johannisthal. Here he started his first firm Fokker Aeroplanbau.

From here he soon moved to Schwerin where he founded Fokker Werke GmbH.

Fokker and WWI

Now happened WWI 1914. This was as a forecast for the future trend for Fokker. He updated his now old Spinn more and he principle copied the French monoplane Morane Saulinier. He then offered the German air forces a reconnaissance plane. It got the id M.5. He build a short and long version.

At this time 1914 none thought about air battles. Possible the pilot could shot at each other with an hand held gun. But otherwise the pilots were "the Knights in the Air". The pilot honored each other when they met. The only thing they fought were the enemy balloon hampers.

Fokker understood that the pilots had a good influence on what kind of plane to be bought. He was a clever pilot himself and went with his plane to the wings to demonstrate it for the German pilots.

The common models were now two seat planes. One was pilot and the other sitting in front was gunner. Often the engine was mounted backside. It was so easy to destroy the propeller. The solution for this there were several patents. But no one had solved it practically.

One Frenchman Rolando Garros tried to point the gun straight forward and armed the propeller on his plane. This went good for a while, but at last he was forced to make an emergency landing. Now the Germen got to know his secrets. Fokker and other producer was shown the place and Rolando's plane. All were urged to made solutions.

Fokker was quick and soon he had a solution for this problem. It was built onto synchronize the puller of the gun and the blade of the propeller. Fokker sold his solution by towing his prototype plane to a place for testing in Berlin. Here he made a demonstration.

This became a successful journey and back home to Schwerin he had an order. This synchronization where then mounted in his private plane and his helper flew this to the wing to demonstrate for other pilots.

This plane became later the Fokker  Eindecker EI. From the beginning the M.5.K (Spinn). His plane was equipped with a 80 ps Oberursel Gnom rotation engine and became now superior over all allied fighters for a time of 6 months.

During this time there was no other solution from anyone else for the problem. In the middle of 1915 a German pilot happened to be captured when he by mistake landed on an allied airfield. Now the construction was unveied. Together with new allied aircraft models like Nieuport 11, FE2b and S.E.2 the superior for the Germen changed.

This superior time was called the German Scrouge and the allied were the Fodder for the Germen.

Fokker now presented a biplane with the ids  D.I - D.IV. Germany had to trust on private producers. This time lasted till the triplanes conquered the air for some months.

Fokker's posthumous reputation

As for all historical persons arise, in Fokkers case, after 100 years a certain hesitation if Fokker was worth his famous. When judging this one must put it in Fokkers present time. About a patent for synchronization during a war no one care. Furthermore noone else succeeded to solve the practical solution than Fokker. His construction had to be known because of a plane landed on the wrong air field. Furthermore the allied didn't show any solution during the 6 months long "Scrouge" period.

About later airplanes models it is said that it was not a Fokker design. As for example DR.I and DVII. Of course every firm has a leader/owner and there are assistants. If everything should be taken down to the assitants neither Messerschmidt, Heinkel or Focke-Wulf have the right name. It is the owner's money they work with.

Anthony Fokker took his whole factory and smuggled it over to the Netherlands loaded on six fully transport trains in the end of war. From here he continued his aeroplane production.

Before WWII Fokker moved to America and started up production there. The Netherlands factory started again after the WWII.


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Swedish version

Fokker Triplane

Fokker Triplaneat Hannover museum. Ref 1
Fokker Triplane at Hannover museum. Ref 1Airc0 DH2. Ref 49
Airc0 DH2. Ref 49Sopwith Camel. Ref 49
Sopwith Camel. Ref 49SopPup3. Ref 49
SopPup3. Ref 49RAF FE2b. Ref 49
RAF FE2b. Ref 49Replica Sopwith Triplande. Ref 49
Replica Sopwith Triplane. Ref 49


Links

Fokker DRI

Fokker triplane

Mikael Carlsson

Fokker DRI in detail





 


 

Fokker DRI triplane replica. Ref 1
 
Sopwith Triplane

The allied could also design fighters which were good. About this Sopwith had a designer in Herbert Smith.

The problem was that the pilot had to put their plane in a good position for shooting and make it fast. Now they wanted to turn, swing and dive. The one that made this in the best way was the winner.

There was no demand that the planes had to be fast in horizontal plane. The solution with airplanes with weak engines was to give the plane a larger wing area.

Herbert Smith put another wing and now there were thre wings. TRIPLANES.

Qualifications

These planes had the qualifications to turn, swing and dive fast. Furthermore they now had the synchronization for the guns to be able for shooting through the propeller.

Fokker made several updates of his gun solution. It was simply said one cam which was mounted on the crankshaft on the backside of the engine. His device fired the gun. Other types of synchronizations stopped the firing. Naturally for two guns there were two cams.

Fokker Triplane

Sopwith Triplane had such success that Germany also must do something alike.

Fokker took his biplane D IV, changed the wings and added a third. This became Fokker Triplane.

The faamous for Triplane was most for the pilot Richthofen. The delivery for the wings began in October 1917.

One disadvantage with this type was that it was easy to overstrain the wings. Several wing crashes happened and pilots were killed. Now there were also stronger engines like Oberursel II and III. The last was an two row rotation engine with 2x7 cylinders.

Of the triplanes  by Sopwith only 320 were produced,  mostly depending on the time they were in service before the next updated plan were delivered before other more superior planes show up in the front. Production ceased May 1918.

Survivers

No triplanes have survived till today. After the war there were only two flying triplanes left. They were placed in different museums. 1932 Fokker built one from remaining parts. It was placed in a museum in Berlin and of course it was destroyed during WWII bombings 1943. One crashed during a film play and the third was destroyed in another of Berlin museums and bombing.

The cause why an air museum in Germany has one red painted is necessary and this is why a replica is built. Even in Sweden one Triplane is built, a flying replica from original drawings by Mikael Carlsson. It is just as necessary as for a car museum to have one Benz three wheeler.

The new type of planes

Now Fokker had made his best design in Fokker D VII. This was equipped with BMW 6 cylinders 180 ps engine. This design was so superior over the allied types that in the peace documents it was written that all of them hade to be hand over to the allied.


Page 16

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Swedish version

Focke-Wulf Stieglitz

Info about Focke-Wulf 44. Ref 1
Info about Focke-Wulf 44. Ref 1Focke Wulf Stieglitz at Roll Out in Västerås 2010. Ref 1
Focke Wulf Stieglitz at Roll Out in Västerås 2010. Ref 1


Links

More pictures

Focke-Wulf FW 44
 


 

Focke-Wulf FW 44. Also sold to Sweden as trainer. Ref 1
 
1936. It was that year when Swedish government decided to increase the Swedish Air Force.

Up to this year there were only 80 planes of different types and all were more or less old fashioned. Up to 1942 it was decided that the air force must have expanded till 450 planes of which 300 should be in the first line.

This was an impossible wish for Sweden when the air force didn't want to buy ready made instead it must be licences, so Sweden could produce it in Sweden and built up an defence industry of our own.

There were rather large producers like ASJA, SAAB, AFF (AB United Air factories). Furthermore the air force had some workshops which were meant for support. These got an important roll for all licences buildings.

These were CFM (Central air workshop at Malmslätt, CFV (Central air workshop in Vasteras) and also Bofors/Nohab aircraft engines.

For this expansion pilots were needed and for this trainer aircrafts. Focke-Wulf from Luftwaffe was flown 1935 till Ljungbyhed for demonstration. this plane was designed by a well known designer, Kurt Tank, which with the help of his acrobats fellows in the air Ernst Udet, Emil Kropf and Gerd Achegelis had helped him to develope this model.

This plane was used for all German pilots during WWII. The air force decided to buy two copies for evaluation and 1936 to buy 14 copies. In the same time when production licence was bought another order for 20 copies at ASJA factories in Linkoping.

37 planes were built at CFV. Although a support workshop should not do things like this. Later Focke-Wulf delivered another 12 planes.

SK-12 was built up by wood with a frame of welded pipes covered with fabrics. Certain parts of the wings were covered by plywood. 

The engine was a Siemens Bravo licence produced by BMW and gave 145 ps. When this type was faced out of service after the war, most of the planes went to the wings and were used in active duty. This came to an end far in 1960th.

Several planes were sold to the air clubs for a symbolic sum. Great interest for this planes were in Germany and many were sold there.

2 FW44J can be seen at Svedinos Car and airmuseum. There is also on copy at air force museum at former flying school Ljungbyhed.

 

Other Car MC museums in this website

Museumlist
Adalen car museum
Arnolds_cars & odds ends
Arvika car mc museum
Assa car museum
AUDI Ingolstadt
Autoseum
Autostadt

Barnfind Halsingland
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Brosarp Museistation
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Car sport museum Karlskrona
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Enoch Thulin Landskrona
Falkoping MC Museum
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Hannover air museum
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Koping car museum
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Ladenburg
My Vehicles
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Mercedes Benz
MC-Collection Sweden
MC museum Hedemora
Motala museum
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Outbordmuseum Varb.
Porsche
Rydaholms Car Museum
Robot Museum Sweden
Regnsjo, SAF cars
Panzeranzer museum
ScaniaVabis museum
Sinsheim museum
Skokloster car museum
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Storvik Odds and Ends
Svedino car & airplane
Soderhamn Air Force
Sparreholm museum
Sagen Technical museum
Surahammar MC
Swedish Air force museum
Swedish submarines
Torsong MC museum
Torsby Car MC museum
Technical museum Helsinb
Technical museum Stockholm
Ullared carmuseum
Volkswagen
Volvo Industrial museum
Ziegenhagen

Other sites
Military service
Travels
My Heritage

Trainmuseum Sweden
Vasteras Airmuseum
Hagfors Industrimuseum
Karlskrona Marina

Links for other military sites in this website.
Pansarmuseum SverigeBrooklands museum England Duxford museum England
Sinsheim Air part  Robot museum Sweden  Soderhamns Air museum

Thulinroom Landskrona Svedino Flygmuseum  Hassleholm vehicle museum  Malmkoping vehicle museum Hannover Latzen Air museum  Swedish Submarines  Malmo Technical, sub

Pictures from the followint owners have been used in bjorns-story.se with the necessary allowance.
Reference 1: © Björn Bellander 
bjorn.bellander(at)telia.com
Reference 48: Collected from one website
Reference 49: ©Picture from Wikipedia.
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